Anatomy Of An Epidemic

Author : Robert Whitaker
ISBN : 0307452433
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 45.89 MB
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Now with bonus material, including a new foreword and afterword with updated research In this astonishing and startling book, award-winning science and history writer Robert Whitaker investigates a medical mystery: Why has the number of disabled mentally ill in the United States tripled over the past two decades? Every day, 1,100 adults and children are added to the government disability rolls because they have become newly disabled by mental illness, with this epidemic spreading most rapidly among our nation’s children. What is going on? Anatomy of an Epidemic challenges readers to think through that question themselves. First, Whitaker investigates what is known today about the biological causes of mental disorders. Do psychiatric medications fix “chemical imbalances” in the brain, or do they, in fact, create them? Researchers spent decades studying that question, and by the late 1980s, they had their answer. Readers will be startled—and dismayed—to discover what was reported in the scientific journals. Then comes the scientific query at the heart of this book: During the past fifty years, when investigators looked at how psychiatric drugs affected long-term outcomes, what did they find? Did they discover that the drugs help people stay well? Function better? Enjoy good physical health? Or did they find that these medications, for some paradoxical reason, increase the likelihood that people will become chronically ill, less able to function well, more prone to physical illness? This is the first book to look at the merits of psychiatric medications through the prism of long-term results. Are long-term recovery rates higher for medicated or unmedicated schizophrenia patients? Does taking an antidepressant decrease or increase the risk that a depressed person will become disabled by the disorder? Do bipolar patients fare better today than they did forty years ago, or much worse? When the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) studied the long-term outcomes of children with ADHD, did they determine that stimulants provide any benefit? By the end of this review of the outcomes literature, readers are certain to have a haunting question of their own: Why have the results from these long-term studies—all of which point to the same startling conclusion—been kept from the public? In this compelling history, Whitaker also tells the personal stories of children and adults swept up in this epidemic. Finally, he reports on innovative programs of psychiatric care in Europe and the United States that are producing good long-term outcomes. Our nation has been hit by an epidemic of disabling mental illness, and yet, as Anatomy of an Epidemic reveals, the medical blueprints for curbing that epidemic have already been drawn up.
Category: Psychology

Die Manipulierte Evolution

Author : Thomas Böhm
ISBN : 9783991001096
Genre : Science
File Size : 67.54 MB
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Immer mehr Menschen leiden an Übergewicht, Depressionen, Suchtkrankheiten. Viele stellen die Karriere an erste Stelle oder denken über künstliche Befruchtung nach. Welche Auswirkungen hat dieser Lebensstil auf den Gen-Code der Menschheit - und letztlich auf den Verlauf der Evolution? Unsere heutigen Verhaltensweisen können schwerwiegende Folgen für die Zukunft haben - Folgen, die sogar tief in den menschlichen Bauplan, das Genom, eingreifen. Dr. Thomas Böhm, jahrelang in der medizinischen Grundlagenforschung an vorderster Front der Krankheitsbekämpfung, betrachtet das Thema genetische Evolution erstmals unter dem entscheidenden Gesichtspunkt: den konkreten Auswirkungen auf das menschliche Leben. Inwieweit verursachen medizinische Verfahren wie etwa die Chemotherapie Veränderungen in unserem Genom? Kommt es durch Übergewicht zu Darwinistischer Selektion? Sind resistente Bakterien eine Gefahr für unsere "genetische Gesundheit"? Wie ist es möglich, dass bestimmte Individuen eine HIV-Infektion ohne Probleme überstehen? Und warum nehmen psychische Krankheiten in den letzten Jahrzehnten zu? Ein besseres Verständnis dieser Zusammenhänge von Evolution, Medizin und Gesundheit kann uns helfen, unsere Verhaltensweisen neu zu überdenken und so Krankheit und Leid für zukünftige Generationen zu vermeiden. Böhm diskutiert die Auswirkungen der Veränderungen, die unser Verhalten auf die menschliche Genetik haben kann, auf medizinisch-wissenschaftlicher, sozialer und ethischer Ebene und formuliert damit ein ganz neues Thema, das bislang selbst von den Vordenkern wie Dawkins & Co kaum angerissen wurde.
Category: Science

Krankheitskonstruktionen Und Krankheitstreiberei

Author : Michael Dellwing
ISBN : 9783531187846
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 42.94 MB
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Die Psychiatrie gehörte einmal zu den prominentesten Zielen soziologischer Kritik: Die Subjektivierung und Verkörperlichung von Interaktionsproblemen als objektive „Krankheitszustände“ konnte aus soziologischer Perspektive lange nur als simplistische Verkürzung komplexer sozialer Prozesse auffallen. Diese Kritik ist seit den achtziger Jahren eingeschlafen: Einerseits erlebte die Kritische Thematisierung, auf der sie stand, einen Niedergang, andererseits solidifizierte sich die somatische Psychiatrie zunehmend. Vor allem im Kernland der psychiatrischen Selbstverständlichkeit, den Vereinigten Staaten, bröckelt diese Solidität. Nicht nur hat eine wiedererwachende Soziologie neue Popularität gewonnen und eine Reihe neuer Klassiker produziert, die Medikalisierung als pragmatischen Prozess der Zuschreibung von Krankheitsrollen untersucht, ohne mit dieser Thematisierung weiter weitläufige Herrschaftskritik zu verbinden. Seit Mitte der neunziger Jahre sind zudem zunehmend kritische Stellungnahmen innerhalb der Psychiatrie aufgekommen, die von den angeblichen wissenschaftlichen Nachweisen somatischer Krankheitszustände, ihren gehirn- und hormonzentrierten Ätiologien und dem Sinn der medikamentzentrierten Reaktionen auf sie nicht mehr überzeugt sind. Der vorliegende Band greift mit Originalbeiträgen nordamerikanischer, britischer und israelischer AutorInnen diese etablierte Herausforderung somatisch-psychiatrischer Selbstverständlichkeiten auf. Sie verbindet diese mit deutschsprachigen Originalbeiträgen, in denen Krankheitszuschreibungen wieder soziologisch als Elemente in komplexen Prozessen der Aushandlung sozialer Realität verstanden werden. Damit sucht sie einen neuerlichen Ausweg aus der vereinfachenden, aber auch vor allem im Alltag weit verbreiteten Position, es handele sich um die Erkenntnis von „wahrer Krankheit“. ​
Category: Social Science

Neuromythologie

Author : Felix Hasler
ISBN : 9783839415801
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 26.42 MB
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Alle machen Hirnforschung. Kaum eine Wissenschaftsdisziplin kann sich wehren, mit dem Vorsatz »Neuro-« zwangsmodernisiert und mit der Aura vermeintlicher experimenteller Beweisbarkeit veredelt zu werden. Die Kinder der Neuroinflation heißen Neurotheologie, Neuroökonomie, Neurorecht oder Neuroästhetik. Der gegenwärtige Neurohype führt zu einer Durchdringung unserer Lebenswelt mit Erklärungsmodellen aus der Hirnforschung. Bin ich mein Gehirn? Nur ein Bioautomat? Felix Haslers scharfsinniger Essay ist eine Streitschrift gegen den grassierenden biologischen Reduktionismus und die überzogene Interpretation neurowissenschaftlicher Daten: ein Plädoyer für Neuroskepsis statt Neurospekulation.
Category: Social Science

Screening Sandy Hook

Author : Deanna Spingola
ISBN : 9781490754383
Genre : Science
File Size : 48.74 MB
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Most parents would never consider dispensing deadly addictive “street” drugs to their children but if a trusted physician writes a prescription for an FDA-approved schedule 2 “medication” for their two-year old based on some questionable mental health screening, those unwary parents do not question or object. Despite side effect warnings, regularly revealed during TV ads, parents frequently fail to take those warnings seriously, perhaps presuming that the side effects are happenstance or rarely occur. Over the decades, because organized psychiatry, represented by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), convened numerous consensus panels that designed hundreds of non-biologically-based “disorders” for its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) especially suitable for the pill-for-every-ill pharmaceutical industry that conceivably already had many profitable solutions for the “disorders,” in the pre-production process. The consequences have been disastrous with no discernable end in sight – some people taking prescription drugs or withdrawing from them have perpetrated school, mall and public shootings. That is in addition to thousands of suicides that the public never hears about, unless the victim is a well-known public figure like Robin Williams. Just the military-related suicide rate is 8,000 per year –untold numbers of these are the result of the psych drug cocktails doled out by psychiatrists working for the VA. The government is big pharma’s largest customer. In addition to the homicides and suicides, irreversible brain damage results from drug remedies to temporary problems that might have been easily resolved through compassionate interaction and talk therapy. Despite the claims that drugs were not a factor in the Sandy Hook mass murders, certain circumstances provide a different picture. Adam Lanza, always a unique individual, changed from being a “geeky, weird kid” to being a mass murderer, not of people his own age, but of beautiful, vulnerable children feeling secure in their classrooms in a sleepy bedroom community in Connecticut.
Category: Science

Anatomy Of An Epidemic

Author : Frederic P. Miller
ISBN : 6133854103
Genre : Medical
File Size : 83.68 MB
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Anatomy of an Epidemic: Magic Bullets, Psychiatric Drugs and the Astonishing Rise of Mental Illness in America is book by Robert Whitaker published in 2010 by Crown. Whitaker asks why the number of Americans who receive government disability for mental illness approximately doubled since 1987. He tries to answer that question and examines the long-term outcomes for the mentally ill in the U.S. Whitaker explains that the drugs given to people with schizophrenia and depression were developed during a period of growth for the pharmaceutical industry, following that industry's development of magic bullets that treat people with, for example, diabetes. The public wanted to believe in wonder drugs. Unfortunately, the reasons the pharmaceutical companies gave for the drugs working (too much or too little dopamine or serotonin in the patient's brain) have not proved to be true.
Category: Medical

All We Have To Fear

Author : Allan V. Horwitz, PhD
ISBN : 9780199978861
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 20.74 MB
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Thirty years ago, it was estimated that less than five percent of the population had an anxiety disorder. Today, some estimates are over fifty percent, a tenfold increase. Is this dramatic rise evidence of a real medical epidemic? In All We Have to Fear, Allan Horwitz and Jerome Wakefield argue that psychiatry itself has largely generated this "epidemic" by inflating many natural fears into psychiatric disorders, leading to the over-diagnosis of anxiety disorders and the over-prescription of anxiety-reducing drugs. American psychiatry currently identifies disordered anxiety as irrational anxiety disproportionate to a real threat. Horwitz and Wakefield argue, to the contrary, that it can be a perfectly normal part of our nature to fear things that are not at all dangerous--from heights to negative judgments by others to scenes that remind us of past threats (as in some forms of PTSD). Indeed, this book argues strongly against the tendency to call any distressing condition a "mental disorder." To counter this trend, the authors provide an innovative and nuanced way to distinguish between anxiety conditions that are psychiatric disorders and likely require medical treatment and those that are not--the latter including anxieties that seem irrational but are the natural products of evolution. The authors show that many commonly diagnosed "irrational" fears--such as a fear of snakes, strangers, or social evaluation--have evolved over time in response to situations that posed serious risks to humans in the past, but are no longer dangerous today. Drawing on a wide range of disciplines including psychiatry, evolutionary psychology, sociology, anthropology, and history, the book illuminates the nature of anxiety in America, making a major contribution to our understanding of mental health.
Category: Health & Fitness

Crisis

Author : Lee Ann Hoff
ISBN : 9780199364183
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 32.5 MB
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Unlike books focusing on a single crisis topic, Crisis helps recognize common signs of endangerment across a range of life challenges by showing the interconnections between various harmful events. Through media coverage of school shootings, suicides, domestic abuse, workplace violence, and more, we've become accustomed to hearing about violence and trauma-almost invariably followed by reports that show all of the warning signs that were missed. While it is impossible to predict when, where, and with whom a crisis will occur, we do have the means to be better equipped to intervene in stressful situations before they tip over into a crisis. Important preventative information is readily available, and this book better prepares us to take appropriate responsive action. Often a crisis is the result of a critical life event; whether or not a life-changing event turns into a crisis depends on the type, timing, and interpretation of the event, the person's life cycle development phase, history of healthy coping, and available timely support. In sum, Lee Ann Hoff illustrates how to recognize crisis as both danger and opportunity. The more we know about how to spot a potential crisis and what to do, the more likely distressed persons will get the help they need.
Category: Social Science

The Noonday Demon

Author : Andrew Solomon
ISBN : 9781451676884
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 79.53 MB
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With uncommon humanity, candor, wit, and erudition, award-winning author Andrew Solomon takes the reader on a journey of incomparable range and resonance into the most pervasive of family secrets. His contribution to our understanding not only of mental illness but also of the human condition is truly stunning. The Noonday Demon examines depression in personal, cultural, and scientific terms. Drawing on his own struggles with the illness and interviews with fellow sufferers, doctors and scientists, policymakers and politicians, drug designers and philosophers, Solomon reveals the subtle complexities and sheer agony of the disease. He confronts the challenge of defining the illness and describes the vast range of available medications, the efficacy of alternative treatments, and the impact the malady has had on various demographic populations around the world and throughout history. He also explores the thorny patch of moral and ethical questions posed by emerging biological explanations for mental illness. The depth of human experience Solomon chronicles, the range of his intelligence, and his boundless curiosity and compassion will change the reader's view of the world.
Category: Psychology

The Art Of Narrative Psychiatry

Author : SuEllen Hamkins
ISBN : 9780199982066
Genre : Medical
File Size : 40.50 MB
Format : PDF
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Narrative psychiatry empowers patients to shape their lives through story. Rather than focusing only on finding the source of the problem, in this collaborative clinical approach psychiatrists also help patients diagnose and develop their sources of strength. By encouraging the patient to explore their personal narrative through questioning and story-telling, the clinician helps the patient participate in and discover the ways in which they construct meaning, how they view themselves, what their values are, and who it is exactly that they want to be. These revelations in turn inform clinical decision-making about what it is that ails them, how they'd like to treat it, and what recovery might look like. The Art of Narrative Psychiatry is the first comprehensive description of narrative psychiatry in action. Engaging and accessible, it demonstrates how to help patients cultivate their personal sources of strength and meaning as resources for recovery. Illustrated with vivid case reports and in-depth accounts of therapeutic conversations, the book offers psychiatrists and psychotherapists detailed guidance in the theory and practice of this collaborative approach. Drawing inspiration from narrative therapy, post-modern philosophy, humanistic medicine, and social justice movements - and replete with ways to more fully manifest the intentions of the mental health recovery model - this engaging new book shows how to draw on the standard psychiatric toolbox while also maintaining focus on the patient's vision of the world and illuminating their skills and strengths. Written by a pioneer in the field, The Art of Narrative Psychiatry describes a breadth of nuanced, powerful narrative practices, including externalizing problems, listening for what is absent but implicit, facilitating re-authoring conversations, fostering communities of support, and creating therapeutic documents. The Art of Narrative Psychiatry addresses mental health challenges that range from mild to severe, including anxiety, depression, despair, anorexia/bulimia, perfectionism, OCD, trauma, psychosis, and loss. True to form, the author narrates her own experience throughout, sharing her internal thoughts and decision-making processes as she listens to patients. The Art of Narrative Psychiatry is necessary reading for any professional seeking to empower their patients and become a better, more compassionate clinician.
Category: Medical