Logic Made Clear

Author : Marta Calvo
ISBN : 1544800436
Genre :
File Size : 33.85 MB
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This revised, 2nd edition of Logic Made Clear is designed for readers interested in learning basic concepts and methods of logic. It introduces the principles and step by step procedures indispensable for analyzing written or verbal communication, especially that involving argumentation. The topics covered include: paradoxes of reason; the meaning, imprecision, and definitions of linguistic expressions; a procedure for identifying deductive and inductive arguments and determining their validity; propositional and quantificational systems of logic; analyzing and diagraming arguments; and classification and detection of fallacies, with emphasis on faulty analogy. For exercises the book employs diverse academic and non-academic sources. The book can be used as a self-guided study by any independent learner or as a framework for a college-level course in logic.
Category:

Principles Of Logic And Logic Programming

Author : G. Metakides
ISBN : 9780080539645
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 23.83 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
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Logic's basic elements are unfolded in this book. The relation of and the transition from Logic to Logic Programming are analysed. With the use and the development of computers in the beginning of the 1950's, it soon became clear that computers could be used, not only for arithmetical computation, but also for symbolic computation. Hence, the first arithmetical computation programs, and the first programs created to answer elementary questions and prove simple theorems, were written simultaneously. The basic steps towards a general method based on Logic, were accomplished in 1965 by Robinson and later by Kowalski and Colmerauer who made use of Logic directly as a Logic Programming language. Each chapter includes solved as well as unsolved exercises provided to help the reader assimilate the corresponding topics. The solved exercises demonstrate how to work methodically, whereas the unsolved exercises aim to stimulate the reader's personal initiative. The contents of the book are self-contained; only an elementary knowledge of analysis is required. Thus, it can be used by students in every academic year, as simply reading material, or in the context of a course. It can also be used by those who utilize Logic Programming without having any particular theoretical background knowledge of Logic, or by those simply interested in Logic and its applications in Logic Programming.
Category: Mathematics

David Makinson On Classical Methods For Non Classical Problems

Author : Sven Ove Hansson
ISBN : 9789400777590
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 86.62 MB
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The volume analyses and develops David Makinson’s efforts to make classical logic useful outside its most obvious application areas. The book contains chapters that analyse, appraise, or reshape Makinson’s work and chapters that develop themes emerging from his contributions. These are grouped into major areas to which Makinsons has made highly influential contributions and the volume in its entirety is divided into four sections, each devoted to a particular area of logic: belief change, uncertain reasoning, normative systems and the resources of classical logic. Among the contributions included in the volume, one chapter focuses on the “inferential preferential method”, i.e. the combined use of classical logic and mechanisms of preference and choice and provides examples from Makinson’s work in non-monotonic and defeasible reasoning and belief revision. One chapter offers a short autobiography by Makinson which details his discovery of modern logic, his travels across continents and reveals his intellectual encounters and inspirations. The chapter also contains an unusually explicit statement on his views on the (limited but important) role of logic in philosophy.
Category: Philosophy

Felix Kaufmann S Theory And Method In The Social Sciences

Author : Robert S. Cohen
ISBN : 9783319028453
Genre : Science
File Size : 82.74 MB
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This volume contains the English translation of Felix Kaufmann's (1895-1945) main work Methodenlehre der Sozialwissenschaften (1936). In this book, Kaufmann develops a general theory of knowledge of the social sciences in his role as a cross-border commuter between Husserl's phenomenology, Kelsen's pure theory of law and the logical positivism of the Vienna Circle. This multilayered inquiry connects the value-oriented reflections of a general philosophy of science with the specificity of the methods and theories of the social sciences, as opposed to abstract natural science and psychology. The core focus of the study is the attempt to elucidate how and under what conditions scientific knowledge about social facts, empirically justified and theoretically embedded, can be obtained. The empirical basis of knowledge within the social sciences forms a phenomenological concept of experience. According to Kaufmann, this concept of experience exhibits a complex structure. Within the meaning-interpretation of human action as the core of knowledge in the social sciences, this structure reaches out across the isolated act of verification toward the synthesis of external and internal experiences. The book opens with a detailed and useful introduction by Ingeborg K. Helling, which introduces the historical and theoretical background of Kaufmann's study and specifically illuminates his relation to Alfred Schütz and John Dewey. Finally, it contains interviews with and letters to members of his family, colleagues and students.
Category: Science

Norms Values And Society

Author : Herlinde Pauer-Studer
ISBN : 9789401724548
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 50.92 MB
Format : PDF
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Norms, Values, and Society is the second Yearbook of the Vienna Circle Institute, which was founded in October 1991. The main part of the book contains original contributions to an international symposium the Institute held in October 1993 on ethics and social philosophy. The papers deal among others with questions of justice, equality, just social institutions, human rights, the connections between rationality and morality and the methodological problems of applied ethics. The Documentation section contains previously unpublished papers by Rudolf Carnap, Philipp Frank, Charles W. Morris and Edgar Zilsel, and the review section presents new publications on the Vienna Circle. The Vienna Circle Institute is devoted to the critical advancement of science and philosophy in the broad tradition of the Vienna Circle, as well as to the focusing of cross-disciplinary interest on the history and philosophy of science in a social context. The Institute's Yearbooks will, for the most part, document its activities and provide a forum for the discussion of exact philosophy, logical and empirical investigations, and analysis of language.
Category: Philosophy

Dictionary Of Logic As Applied In The Study Of Language

Author : W. Marciszewski
ISBN : 9789401712538
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 87.98 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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1. STRUCTURE AND REFERENCES 1.1. The main part of the dictionary consists of alphabetically arranged articles concerned with basic logical theories and some other selected topics. Within each article a set of concepts is defined in their mutual relations. This way of defining concepts in the context of a theory provides better understand ing of ideas than that provided by isolated short defmitions. A disadvantage of this method is that it takes more time to look something up inside an extensive article. To reduce this disadvantage the following measures have been adopted. Each article is divided into numbered sections, the numbers, in boldface type, being addresses to which we refer. Those sections of larger articles which are divided at the first level, i.e. numbered with single numerals, have titles. Main sections are further subdivided, the subsections being numbered by numerals added to the main section number, e.g. I, 1.1, 1.2, ... , 1.1.1, 1.1.2, and so on. A comprehensive subject index is supplied together with a glossary. The aim of the latter is to provide, if possible, short defmitions which sometimes may prove sufficient. As to the use of the glossary, see the comment preceding it.
Category: Philosophy

Methods Of Argumentation

Author : Douglas Walton
ISBN : 9781107435193
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 21.66 MB
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Argumentation, which can be abstractly defined as the interaction of different arguments for and against some conclusion, is an important skill to learn for everyday life, law, science, politics and business. The best way to learn it is to try it out on real instances of arguments found in everyday conversational exchanges and legal argumentation. The introductory chapter of this book gives a clear general idea of what the methods of argumentation are and how they work as tools that can be used to analyze arguments. Each subsequent chapter then applies these methods to a leading problem of argumentation. Today the field of computing has embraced argumentation as a paradigm for research in artificial intelligence and multi-agent systems. Another purpose of this book is to present and refine tools and techniques from computing as components of the methods that can be handily used by scholars in other fields.
Category: Mathematics

Kantian Reason And Hegelian Spirit

Author : Gary Dorrien
ISBN : 9781119016540
Genre : Religion
File Size : 20.53 MB
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Winner: 2012 The American Publishers Award for Professional and Scholarly Excellence in Theology and Religious Studies, PROSE Award. In this thought–provoking new work, the world renowned theologian Gary Dorrien reveals how Kantian and post–Kantian idealism were instrumental in the foundation and development of modern Christian theology. Presents a radical rethinking of the roots of modern theology Reveals how Kantian and post–Kantian idealism were instrumental in the foundation and development of modern Christian theology Shows how it took Kant′s writings on ethics and religion to launch a fully modern departure in religious thought Dissects Kant′s three critiques of reason and his moral conception of religion Analyzes alternative arguments offered by Schleiermacher, Schelling, Hegel, and others – moving historically and chronologically through key figures in European philosophy and theology Presents notoriously difficult and intellectual arguments in a lucid and accessible manner
Category: Religion

The Logical Foundations Of Scientific Theories

Author : Decio Krause
ISBN : 9781315535203
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 64.42 MB
Format : PDF
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This book addresses the logical aspects of the foundations of scientific theories. Even though the relevance of formal methods in the study of scientific theories is now widely recognized and regaining prominence, the issues covered here are still not generally discussed in philosophy of science. The authors focus mainly on the role played by the underlying formal apparatuses employed in the construction of the models of scientific theories, relating the discussion with the so-called semantic approach to scientific theories. The book describes the role played by this metamathematical framework in three main aspects: considerations of formal languages employed to axiomatize scientific theories, the role of the axiomatic method itself, and the way set-theoretical structures, which play the role of the models of theories, are developed. The authors also discuss the differences and philosophical relevance of the two basic ways of aximoatizing a scientific theory, namely Patrick Suppes’ set theoretical predicates and the "da Costa and Chuaqui" approach. This book engages with important discussions of the nature of scientific theories and will be a useful resource for researchers and upper-level students working in philosophy of science.
Category: Mathematics

The Foundation Of Phenomenology

Author : Marvin Farber
ISBN : 9781351482615
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 27.34 MB
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In this widely hailed and long out of print classic of twentieth century philosophic commentary, Professor Farber explains the origin, development, and function of phenomenology with a view towards its significance for philosophy in general.The book offers a general account of Husserl and the background of his philosophy. The early chapters are devoted to his mathematical-philosophical and psychological studies. The refutation of psychologism is present in detail, together with the critical reaction to it. The development of his logical theories in the light of contemporary literature at the close of the 19th century is next considered. The main content of the six Logical Investigations follows, which contribute to the phenomenological elucidation of experience and knowledge. The phenomenological philosophy of logic as developed in Husserl's later writings is then introduced, followed by a discussion of the phenomenological method and its proper function. Farber makes clear his preference for phenomenology as a purely descriptive method and his opposition to have it serve as a last stronghold of metaphysics.Indispensable as groundwork for descriptive philosophical study, this book will deeply interest not only serious students of philosophy and psychology, but also those who are concerned with the philosophical aspects of mathematics, social and natural sciences, law and psychiatry.
Category: Philosophy