Pathologies Of Power

Author : Paul Farmer
ISBN : 9780520243262
Genre : History
File Size : 75.8 MB
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"Pathologies of Power" uses harrowing stories of life and death to argue thatthe promotion of social and economic rights of the poor is the most importanthuman rights struggle of our times.
Category: History

Human Rights

Author : Albert A. Zinnos
ISBN : 1594545766
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 59.92 MB
Format : PDF
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Human rights refers to the concept of human beings as having universal rights, or status, regardless of legal jurisdiction, and likewise other localising factors, such as ethnicity and nationality. For many, the concept of human rights is based in religious principles. However, because a formal concept of human rights has not been universally accepted, the term has some degree of variance between its use in different local jurisdictions - difference in both meaningful substance as well as in protocols for and styles of application. Ultimately the most general meaning of the term is one which can only apply universally, and hence the term human rights is often itself an appeal to such transcended principles, without basing such on existing legal concepts. The term humanism refers to the developing doctrine of such universally applicable values, and it is on the basic concept that human beings have innate rights, that more specific local legal concepts are often based. as accepted within their respective legal systems regarding: the well being of individuals, the freedom and autonomy of individuals, and the representation of the human interest in government. These rights commonly include the right to life, the right to an adequate standard of living, the prohibition of genocide, freedom from torture and other mistreatment, freedom of expression, freedom of movement, the right to self-determination, the right to education, and the right to participation in cultural and political life. These norms are based on the legal and political traditions of United Nations member states and are incorporated into international human rights instruments. This new book brings together the latest book literature centred on this crucial topic.
Category: Political Science

Prisoners Of Freedom

Author : Harri Englund
ISBN : 9780520249240
Genre : History
File Size : 54.23 MB
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"This is an exceptionally interesting and well researched book on a topic of enormous importance. It brings careful ethnographic fieldwork to bear on the new 'culture of rights' that has developed in democratized post-colonial African states such as Malawi, and by doing so develops a powerful and consequential critique."—James Ferguson, Stanford University "In this exceptionally rich and thought-provoking study of human rights fundamentalism in Malawi, Harri Englund makes an original contribution to debates on democracy, freedom, civil society, and poverty in Africa. His vivid ethnographic prose brings to life Malawian human rights activists, their expatriate benefactors as well as the urban and rural poor. This is a major contribution on a major topic."—Francis B. Nyamnjoh, Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa
Category: History

Unsafe Motherhood

Author : Nicole S. Berry
ISBN : 1845459962
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 55.96 MB
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Since 1987, when the global community first recognized the high frequency of women in developing countries dying from pregnancy-related causes, little progress has been made to combat this problem. This study follows the global policies that have been implemented in Sololá, Guatemala in order to decrease high rates of maternal mortality among indigenous Mayan women. The author examines the diverse meanings and understandings of motherhood, pregnancy, birth and birth-related death among the biomedical personnel, village women, their families, and midwives. These incongruous perspectives, in conjunction with the implementation of such policies, threaten to disenfranchise clients from their own cultural understandings of self. The author investigates how these policies need to meld with the everyday lives of these women, and how the failure to do so will lead to a failure to decrease maternal deaths globally.
Category: Social Science

Global Poverty Ethics And Human Rights

Author : Desmond McNeill
ISBN : 9781134063536
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 27.24 MB
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Severe poverty is one of the greatest moral challenges of our times. But what place, if any, do ethical thinking and questions of global justice have in the policies and practice of international organizations? This books examines this question in depth, based on an analysis of the two major multilateral development organizations - the World Bank and the UNDP - and two specific initiatives where poverty and ethics or human rights have been explicitly in focus: in the Inter-American Development Bank and UNESCO. The current development aid framework may be seen as seeking to make globalization work for the poor; and multilateral organizations such as these are powerful global actors, whether by virtue of their financial resources, or in their role as global norm-setting bodies and as sources of hegemonic knowledge about poverty. Drawing on their backgrounds in political economy, ethics and sociology of knowledge, as well as their inside knowledge of some of the case studies, the authors show how, despite the rhetoric, issues of ethics and human rights have – for very varying reasons and in differing ways – been effectively prevented from impinging on actual practice. Global Poverty, Ethics and Human Rights will be of interest to researchers and advanced students, as well as practitioners and activists, in the fields of international relations, development studies, and international political economy. It will also be of relevance for political philosophy, human rights, development ethics and applied ethics more generally.
Category: Business & Economics

Counting The Dead

Author : Winifred Tate
ISBN : 9780520941175
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 82.49 MB
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At a time when a global consensus on human rights standards seems to be emerging, this rich study steps back to explore how the idea of human rights is actually employed by activists and human rights professionals. Winifred Tate, an anthropologist and activist with extensive experience in Colombia, finds that radically different ideas about human rights have shaped three groups of human rights professionals working there--nongovernmental activists, state representatives, and military officers. Drawing from the life stories of high-profile activists, pioneering interviews with military officials, and research at the United Nations Human Rights Commission in Geneva, Counting the Dead underscores the importance of analyzing and understanding human rights discourses, methodologies, and institutions within the context of broader cultural and political debates.
Category: Social Science

An Anthropology Of Biomedicine

Author : Margaret Lock
ISBN : 9781119069133
Genre : Medical
File Size : 44.40 MB
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"This profoundly revised version of a book that has already become a classic incorporates the most recent developments and challenges in medicine, biology and public health as well as the most salient questions and debates among anthropologists studying these various fields. Addressing issues at the interface between physical life and social life, it brilliantly covers a broad domain from biomedical technologies to global health." Didier Fassin, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton and École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris, France "This second edition of An Anthropology of Biomedicine moves at the speed of the global reach of the subject it analyzes: persuasively argued and richly illustrated with ethnographic, historical, sociomedical and legal cases, this book offers the exemplary and synthetic discussion of biomedicine as a sociotechnical system. Lock and Nguyen's persuasive volume is now thoroughly updated and contains new chapters on microbiology and the microbiome; global health; and, the self as a socio-technical system, making it a challenging and key text for the wide array of fields in which the social sciences intersect with all aspects of the production of and inequalities in health." Rayna Rapp, Professor of Anthropology, New York University, USA In this fully revised and updated second edition of An Anthropology of Biomedicine, authors Lock and Nguyen introduce biomedicine from an anthropological perspective, exploring the entanglement of material bodies with history, environment, culture, and politics. Drawing on historical and ethnographic work, the book critiques the assumption made by the biological sciences of a universal human body that can be uniformly standardized. It focuses on the ways in which the application of biomedical technologies brings about radical changes to societies at large based on socioeconomic inequalities and ethical disputes, and develops and integrates the theory that the human body in health and illness is not an ontological given but a moveable, malleable entity. This second edition includes new chapters on: microbiology and the microbiome; global health; and, the self as a socio-technical system. In addition, all chapters have been comprehensively revised to take account of developments from within this fast-paced field, in the intervening years between publications. References and figures have also been updated throughout. This highly-regarded and award-winning textbook (Winner of the 2010 Prose Award for Archaeology and Anthropology) retains the character and features of the previous edition. Its coverage remains broad, including discussion of: biomedical technologies in practice; anthropologies of medicine; biology and human experiments; infertility and assisted reproduction; genomics, epigenomics, and uncertain futures; and molecularizing racial difference, ensuring it remains the essential text for students of anthropology, medical anthropology as well as public and global health.
Category: Medical

Health And Human Rights In A Changing World

Author : Michael Grodin
ISBN : 9781136688638
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 26.22 MB
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Health and Human Rights in a Changing World is a comprehensive and contemporary collection of readings and original material examining health and human rights from a global perspective. Editors Grodin, Tarantola, Annas, and Gruskin are well-known for their previous two volumes (published by Routledge) on this increasingly important subject to the global community. The editors have contextualized each of the five sections with foundational essays; each reading concludes with discussion topics, questions, and suggested readings. This book also includes Points of View sections—originally written perspectives by important authors in the field. Section I is a Health and Human Rights Overview that lays out the essential knowledge base and provides the foundation for the following sections. Section II brings in notions of concepts, methods, and governance framing the application of health and human rights, in particular the Human Rights-based Approaches to Health. Section III sheds light on issues of heightened vulnerability and special protection, stressing that the health and human rights record of any nation, any community, is determined by what is being done and not done about those who are most in need. Section IV focuses on addressing system failures where health and human rights issues have been documented, recognized, even at times proclaimed as priorities, and yet insufficiently attended to as a result of State denial, unwillingness, or incapacity. Section V examines the relevance of the health and human rights paradigm to a changing world, underscoring contemporary global challenges and responses. Finally, a Concluding Note brings together the key themes of this set of articles and attempts to project a vision of the future.
Category: Social Science

Blind Spot

Author : Salmaan Keshavjee
ISBN : 9780520282841
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 58.15 MB
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Neoliberalism has been the defining paradigm in global health since the latter part of the twentieth century. What started as an untested and unproven theory that the creation of unfettered markets would give rise to political democracy led to policies that promoted the belief that private markets were the optimal agents for the distribution of social goods, including health care. A vivid illustration of the infiltration of neoliberal ideology into the design and implementation of development programs, this case study, set in post-Soviet Tajikistan’s remote eastern province of Badakhshan, draws on extensive ethnographic and historical material to examine a “revolving drug fund” program—used by numerous nongovernmental organizations globally to address shortages of high-quality pharmaceuticals in poor communities. Provocative, rigorous, and accessible, Blind Spot offers a cautionary tale about the forces driving decision making in health and development policy today, illustrating how the privatization of health care can have catastrophic outcomes for some of the world’s most vulnerable populations.
Category: Social Science

Global Outlaws

Author : Carolyn Nordstrom
ISBN : 9780520940635
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 58.64 MB
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Carolyn Nordstrom explores the pathways of global crime in this stunning work of anthropology that has the power to change the way we think about the world. To write this book, she spent three years traveling to hot spots in Africa, Europe, Asia, and the United States investigating the dynamics of illegal trade around the world—from blood diamonds and arms to pharmaceuticals, exotica, and staples like food and oil. Global Outlaws peels away the layers of a vast economy that extends from a war orphan in Angola selling Marlboros on the street to powerful transnational networks reaching across continents and oceans. Nordstrom's extraordinary fieldwork includes interviews with scores of informants, including the smugglers, victims, power elite, and profiteers who populate these economic war zones. Her compelling investigation, showing that the sum total of extra-legal activities represents a significant part of the world's economy, provides a new framework for understanding twenty-first-century economics and economic power. Global Outlaws powerfully reveals the illusions and realities of security in all areas of transport and trade and illuminates many of the difficult ethical problems these extra-legal activities pose.
Category: Social Science