Prisoner S Dilemma

Author : William Poundstone
ISBN : 9780307763785
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 45.61 MB
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Should you watch public television without pledging?...Exceed the posted speed limit?...Hop a subway turnstile without paying? These questions illustrate the so-called "prisoner's dilemma", a social puzzle that we all face every day. Though the answers may seem simple, their profound implications make the prisoner's dilemma one of the great unifying concepts of science. Watching players bluff in a poker game inspired John von Neumann—father of the modern computer and one of the sharpest minds of the century—to construct game theory, a mathematical study of conflict and deception. Game theory was readily embraced at the RAND Corporation, the archetypical think tank charged with formulating military strategy for the atomic age, and in 1950 two RAND scientists made a momentous discovery. Called the "prisoner's dilemma," it is a disturbing and mind-bending game where two or more people may betray the common good for individual gain. Introduced shortly after the Soviet Union acquired the atomic bomb, the prisoner's dilemma quickly became a popular allegory of the nuclear arms race. Intellectuals such as von Neumann and Bertrand Russell joined military and political leaders in rallying to the "preventive war" movement, which advocated a nuclear first strike against the Soviet Union. Though the Truman administration rejected preventive war the United States entered into an arms race with the Soviets and game theory developed into a controversial tool of public policy—alternately accused of justifying arms races and touted as the only hope of preventing them. A masterful work of science writing, Prisoner's Dilemma weaves together a biography of the brilliant and tragic von Neumann, a history of pivotal phases of the cold war, and an investigation of game theory's far-reaching influence on public policy today. Most important, Prisoner's Dilemma is the incisive story of a revolutionary idea that has been hailed as a landmark of twentieth-century thought.
Category: Mathematics

John Von Neumann

Author : Norman Macrae
ISBN : 9783034860642
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 55.53 MB
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Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Die Evolution Der Kooperation

Author : Robert Axelrod
ISBN : 9783486851748
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 57.50 MB
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Wie ist Kooperation möglich in einer Welt von Egoisten, in der es keine zentrale Autorität gibt? Axelrod entwickelt aus der Spieltheorie - auf der Basis des "Gefangenendilemmas" - eine verblüffende Lösung. Nicht die raffinierteste, auch nicht die aggressivste, nicht die sanfteste Strategie sichert langfristig Erfolg, sondern die grundsätzlich wohlwollende, aber stets vergeltungsbereite: TIT FOR TAT, "wie Du mir, so ich Dir". Axelrod schließt daraus, dass in der globalen arbeitsteiligen Wirtschaftsweise geradezu ein innerer Zwang zur Kooperation besteht. Gewinnbringende Kooperationen sind für Unternehmen nützlicher als blinder Wettbewerb.
Category: Philosophy

Das Buch Des Wandels

Author : Matthias Horx
ISBN : 9783641039059
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 39.20 MB
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Sind Sie bereit für eine aufregende Reise durch die Geschichte unserer Zukunft? Wir sind viel besser darin, mit Veränderungen umzugehen und Neues auszuprobieren, als viele befürchten. Matthias Horx zeigt in seiner Auseinandersetzung mit der Geschichte des Wandels von Menschen und Gesellschaften, dass gerade Krisenzeiten den Blick klären. Ein großer gesellschaftspolitischer Wurf von Matthias Horx, der es wie kein anderer versteht, mit historischem Bewusstsein darüber nachzudenken, wie wir künftig leben wollen. Wir reden täglich über die Veränderungen, denen wir ausgesetzt sind, über den rasenden Wandel der Globalisierung oder den rasanten Wandel der Technologie. Viele fürchten sich vor Veränderungen, weil sie einen Verlust an Gewissheiten und Sicherheit erwarten. Aber wie funktioniert Wandel im Alltag, in der Gesellschaft, bei jedem Einzelnen wirklich, und was bedeutet er für jeden von uns? Matthias Horx schlägt einen Bogen von den Jäger- und Sammlerkulturen bis zur hochkomplexen Welt von heute, um zu zeigen, wie die Menschheit Herausforderungen bewältigt hat oder wann und warum eine Gesellschaft – wie etwa das Volk der Maya – scheiterte. Leicht und anschaulich schildert er auf der Grundlage der neuesten Erkenntnisse aus Psychologie, Verhaltensökonomie, Glücksforschung und den Neurowissenschaften, was es im Großen wie im Kleinen braucht, um die Welt neu zu erfinden und den Wandel als Chance zu begreifen. Ein kluges, spannendes und höchst zeitgemäßes Buch gegen die Angst vor der Zukunft!
Category: Social Science

American Literature S Aesthetic Dimensions

Author : Cindy Weinstein
ISBN : 9780231520775
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 66.15 MB
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In these diverse essays, leading critics recast the place of aesthetics in the production and consumption of literature. Rethinking the category of aesthetics in light of recent developments in literary theory and social criticism, contributors showcase the interpretive possibilities available to those who bring politics, culture, ideology, and conceptions of identity into their critiques. Deploying a distinctive range of methodologies, essays combine close readings of individual works and authors with more theoretical discussions of aesthetic theory and its relation to American literature. An introduction surveys the rise of a literary criticism based in aesthetics from the eighteenth century to its twentieth-century remaking in the wake of deconstruction, identity politics, and new historicism. The editors ultimately argue that aesthetics never really left American literary critique, even in the heyday of new historicism. Instead, they cast the current “return to aesthetics” as the natural consequence of shortcomings in deconstruction and new historicism, which led to a reconfiguration of aesthetics. Subsequent essays demonstrate the value and versatility of aesthetic considerations in literature, from eighteenth-century poetry to twentieth-century popular music. Organized into four groups—politics, form, gender, and theory—they revisit the canonical works of Henry James, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Stephen Crane, introduce the overlooked texts of Constance Fenimore Woolson and Earl Lind, and unpack the surprising complexities of the music of The Carpenters. Deeply rooted in an American context, these essays explore literature’s aesthetic dimensions in connection to American liberty and the formation of political selfhood, and they conclude with the ethical implications of reading and representation.
Category: Literary Criticism

The First War Of Physics The Secret History Of The Atom Bomb 1939 1949

Author : Jim Baggott
ISBN : 9781605987699
Genre : History
File Size : 40.67 MB
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An epic story of science and technology at the very limits of human understanding: the monumental race to build the first atomic weapons. Rich in personality, action, confrontation, and deception, The First War of Physics is the first fully realized popular account of the race to build humankind's most destructive weapon. The book draws on declassified material, such as MI6's Farm Hall transcripts, coded soviet messages cracked by American cryptographers in the Venona project, and interpretations by Russian scholars of documents from the soviet archives. Jim Baggott weaves these threads into a dramatic narrative that spans ten historic years, from the discovery of nuclear fission in 1939 to the aftermath of 'Joe-1,’ August 1949's first Soviet atomic bomb test. Why did physicists persist in developing the atomic bomb, despite the devastation that it could bring? Why, despite having a clear head start, did Hitler's physicists fail? Could the soviets have developed the bomb without spies like Klaus Fuchs or Donald Maclean? Did the allies really plot to assassinate a key member of the German bomb program? Did the physicists knowingly inspire the arms race? The First War of Physics is a grand and frightening story of scientific ambition, intrigue, and genius: a tale barely believable as fiction, which just happens to be historical fact.
Category: History

Group Rationality In Scientific Research

Author : Husain Sarkar
ISBN : 9781139464628
Genre : Science
File Size : 43.69 MB
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Under what conditions is a group of scientists rational? How would rational scientists collectively agree to make their group more effective? What sorts of negotiations would occur among them and under what conditions? What effect would their final agreement have on science and society? These questions have been central to the philosophy of science for the last two decades. In this 2007 book, Husain Sarkar proposes answers to them by building on classical solutions - the skeptical view, two versions of the subjectivist view, the objectivist view, and the view of Hilary Putnam. Although he finds these solutions not completely adequate, Sarkar retrieves what is of value from them and also expropriates the arguments of John Rawls and Amartya Sen, in order to weave a richer, deeper, and more developed theory of group rationality.
Category: Science

International Political Economy In Context

Author : Andrew C. Sobel
ISBN : 9781452289878
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 41.28 MB
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Although many international political economy texts offer good descriptions of what events have occurred in global economic and political relations, they fail to develop explicit theoretical frameworks explaining why. Andrew C. Sobel's International Political Economy in Context: Individual Choices, Global Effects takes a micro approach to IPE, grounding policy choices in the deliberations and competitive environs of domestic politics and decision-making processes. Sobel builds students' skills for a sophisticated understanding of how and why events unfold in the international political economy. Armed with the primary assumptions and structural/macro conditions of economic and political geography in the global arena, as well as an understanding of micro-level conditions and mechanisms and their shortfalls that influence political and economic outcomes, students are able to make sense of past and present changes in the global political economy. International Political Economy in Context offers a compelling, accessible, and fully integrated rational choice perspective on international political economy.
Category: Political Science