Teutoburg Forest Ad 9

Author : Michael McNally
ISBN : 1846035813
Genre : History
File Size : 47.55 MB
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Osprey's study of one of the most important battles of the long-elasting Germanic Wars (113 BC - 439 AD). Arminius, a young member of the Cheruscan tribe under the Roman Empire felt that Rome could be beaten in battle and that such a victory would guarantee the freedom of the Germans as a confederation of independent tribes, led by the Cheruscans, who would - in turn - be led by him. Throughout AD 8 and the early part of AD 9, Arminius used his position under the governor of Germania Inferior well, ostensibly promoting Rome whilst in reality welding the tribes together in an anti-Roman alliance, agreeing with his confederates that they would wait until the Roman garrison had moved to their summer quarters and then rise up against the invaders. With the arrival of September, the time soon came for the Roman troops to return to their stations along the Rhine and as they marched westwards through the almost impenetrable Teutoburg Forest, Arminius sprang his trap. In a series of running battles in the forest, Varus' army, consisting of three Roman Legions (XVII, XVIII and XIX) and several thousand auxiliaries - a total of roughly 20,000 men - was destroyed. The consequences for Rome were enormous - the province of Germania was now virtually undefended and Gaul was open to a German invasion which although it never materialized, led a traumatized Augustus to decree that, henceforth, the Rhine would remain the demarcation line between the Roman world and the German tribes, in addition to which the destroyed legions were never re-formed or their numbers reused in the Roman Army: after AD 9, the sequence of numbers would run from I to XVI and then from XX onwards, it was as if the three legions had never existed.
Category: History

Rome S Greatest Defeat

Author : Adrian Murdoch
ISBN : 0750940166
Genre : History
File Size : 43.68 MB
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Over four days at the beginning of September AD 9, half of Rome's Western army was ambushed in a German forest and annihilated. Three legions, three cavalry units and six auxiliary regiments--some 25,000 men--were wiped out. It dealt a body blow to the empire's imperial pretensions and was Rome's greatest defeat. No other battle stopped the Roman empire dead in its tracks. From the moment of the Teutoburg Forest disaster, the Rhine, rather than the Elbe as the Romans had hoped, became the limit of the civilized world. Rome's expansion in northern Europe was checked and Rome anxiously patrolled the Rhineland borders, awaiting further uprisings from Germania. Although one of the most significant and dramatic battles in European history, this is also one that has been largely overlooked. Drawing on primary sources and a vast wealth of new archeological evidence, Adrian Murdoch brings to life the battle itself, the historical background, and the effects of the Roman defeat as well as exploring the personalities of those who took part.
Category: History

Mons Graupius Ad 83

Author : Duncan B Campbell
ISBN : 1846039266
Genre : History
File Size : 36.23 MB
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Osprey's Campaign title for the battle at Mons Graupius (83 AD), which was a decisive conflict between Rome and Britain. In AD 77, Roman forces under Agricola marched into the northern reaches of Britain in an attempt to pacify the Caledonian tribesman. For seven years, the Romans marched and battled across what is now Scotland. Finally, in AD 83, they fought the final battle at Mons Graupius where 10,000 Caledonians were slaughtered from only 360 Roman dead. It proved the high-water mark of Roman power in Britain. Following unrest elsewhere in the empire, the north of Scotland was abandoned and Rome's forces began their long retreat. Never again would Roman arms stand on the edge of the known world.
Category: History

Give Me Back My Legions

Author : Harry Turtledove
ISBN : 1429967080
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 75.45 MB
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Bestselling author Harry Turtledove turns his attention to an epic battle that pits three Roman legions against Teutonic barbarians in a thrilling novel of Ancient Rome: Give Me Back My Legions! Publius Quinctilius Varus, a Roman politician, is summoned by the Emperor, Augustus Caesar. Given three legions and sent to the Roman frontier east of the Rhine, his mission is to subdue the barbarous German tribes where others have failed, and bring their land fully under Rome's control. Arminius, a prince of the Cherusci, is playing a deadly game. He serves in the Roman army, gaining Roman citizenship and officer's rank, and learning the arts of war and policy as practiced by the Romans. What he learns is essential for the survival of Germany, for he must unite his people against Rome before they become enslaved by the Empire and lose their way of life forever. An epic battle is brewing, and these two men stand on opposite sides of what will forever be known as The Battle of the Teutoberg Forest—a ferocious, bloody clash that will change the course of history.
Category: Fiction

The Battle That Stopped Rome

Author : Peter S. Wells
ISBN : 0393326438
Genre : History
File Size : 70.63 MB
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A chronicle of the defeat of the Roman army by German barbarian forces cites the contributions of a Roman traitor that led to the brutal deaths of three Roman legions during the Battle of Teutoburg Forest and caused the Roman empire to cease its expansion, noting the battle's ongoing impact on cultural borders today. Reprint. 15,000 first printing.
Category: History

Arminius The Liberator

Author : Martin M. Winkler
ISBN : 9780190252915
Genre : ART
File Size : 61.26 MB
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"Arminius the Liberator: Myth and Ideology deals with a particular, although wide-ranging, aspect in the long reception history of Arminius the Cheruscan, commonly called Hermann. Arminius inflicted one of their most devastating defeats on the Romans in the year 9 A.D., when he destroyed three legions under the command of Varus in the Battle in the Teutoburg Forest, as it is generally called. Martin M. Winkler traces the origin and development of the Arminius legend in antiquity and in political and ideological appropriations of Arminius-Hermann since the nineteenth century. The book's central theme is the ideological use and abuse of history and of historical myth in Germany: Weimar-era nationalism, National Socialism, and the reaction to the ideological taint of the Arminius figure after 1945. The book also examines the various appearances of Arminius in art and media from the 1960s until today. Special emphasis is on the representation of Arminius in the era of visual mass media in Germany, Italy, and the U.S.: painting (Anselm Kiefer) and theater (Claus Peymann) but, most extensively, cinema, television, and computer videos"--
Category: ART

History Of The Roman Legions

Author : Several Authors
ISBN :
Genre :
File Size : 31.93 MB
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An extraordinary eBook. Over 800 pages, 42 full-color illustrations, out of the text, of Tancredi Scarpelli, Italian illustrator, 30 full-color illustrations, out of the text, of great painters, various illustrations black and white in the text. All the texts of this eBook are free available on the web. Why buy it? Because the book is a resource that provide to a considerable added-value: it coordinates, in logical way, to gather texts scattered on the web the images in full-color and in black and white list of films set in ancient Rome the Most Important Movies All the arguments of the eBook: The History of all roman legions: Organization, Equipment, Body armour, Tactics, Levy and conditions of service, Campaign record, Marching-order and camps, Social impact of military service. Political history of the Roman military, Roman kingdom, Roman Republic from late Republic to mid-Roman Empire, Middle Roman Empire, Late Roman Empire Other: Imperial cavalry, Privileges, Relations, Oligarchical rule, Composition of legions, Roman conquest of Italy, Pattern of Roman expansion, Benefits of Roman hegemony, Military organisation of the Roman alliance, Historical cohesion of the Roman alliance, Samnite Wars, Pyrrhic War, 2nd Punic War, Social War, Integration of socii, Causes of socii revolt, Outbreak of revolt, Roman unification of Italy, Expansion of the Roman Republic, Imperial times, Conquest of the Iberian peninsula (219–18 BC), Macedon, the Greek poleis, and Illyria (215–148 BC), Jugurthine War (112–105 BC), Resurgence of the Celtic threat (121 BC), New Germanic threat (113–101 BC), Conflicts with Mithridates (89–63 BC), Campaign against the Cilician pirates (67 BC), Caesar's early campaigns (59–50 BC), Triumvirates, Caesarian ascension, and revolt (53–30 BC). Empire: Imperial expansion (40 BC – 117 AD), Year of the Four Emperors (69 AD), Jewish revolts (66–135 AD), Struggle with Parthia (114–217 AD), Usurpers (193–394 AD), Struggle with the Sassanid Empire (230–363 AD), Collapse of the Western Empire (402–476 AD), Social War, Civil Wars. Documents: The Battle of The Metaurus, B.: 207, The War with Porsena, The Conquest of Gaul, The Cimbri and Teutones – Political Quarrels, The Battle of Chalons, A.D. 451, The First Punic War, The Praetorian Influence, The Great Enemies of Rome: Pyrrhus, Relation of the Augustan Age to other Literary Epochs, Roman Religion. Bibliography. List of films set in ancient Rome, The Most Important Movies, Source of the Texts.
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History Of Ancient Geography

Author : J. Oliver Thomson
ISBN : 9781107689923
Genre : History
File Size : 38.74 MB
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This 1948 book provides a detailed study of the contribution of ancient societies to the development of geography, both in terms of theory and practical discovery. The text concentrates mainly on the perspectives of Greece and Rome, but other historical periods and regions are given attention, including ancient Egypt and China.
Category: History

The Barbarians Speak

Author : Peter S. Wells
ISBN : 0691089787
Genre : History
File Size : 55.35 MB
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The Barbarians Speak re-creates the story of Europe's indigenous people who were nearly stricken from historical memory even as they adopted and transformed aspects of Roman culture. The Celts and Germans inhabiting temperate Europe before the arrival of the Romans left no written record of their lives and were often dismissed as "barbarians" by the Romans who conquered them. Accounts by Julius Caesar and a handful of other Roman and Greek writers would lead us to think that prior to contact with the Romans, European natives had much simpler political systems, smaller settlements, no evolving social identities, and that they practiced human sacrifice. A more accurate, sophisticated picture of the indigenous people emerges, however, from the archaeological remains of the Iron Age. Here Peter Wells brings together information that has belonged to the realm of specialists and enables the general reader to share in the excitement of rediscovering a "lost people." In so doing, he is the first to marshal material evidence in a broad-scale examination of the response by the Celts and Germans to the Roman presence in their lands. The recent discovery of large pre-Roman settlements throughout central and western Europe has only begun to show just how complex native European societies were before the conquest. Remnants of walls, bone fragments, pottery, jewelry, and coins tell much about such activities as farming, trade, and religious ritual in their communities; objects found at gravesites shed light on the richly varied lives of individuals. Wells explains that the presence--or absence--of Roman influence among these artifacts reveals a range of attitudes toward Rome at particular times, from enthusiastic acceptance among urban elites to creative resistance among rural inhabitants. In fascinating detail, Wells shows that these societies did grow more cosmopolitan under Roman occupation, but that the people were much more than passive beneficiaries; in many cases they helped determine the outcomes of Roman military and political initiatives. This book is at once a provocative, alternative reading of Roman history and a catalyst for overturning long-standing assumptions about nonliterate and indigenous societies.
Category: History

The Plight Of Rome In The Fifth Century Ad

Author : Mark Merrony
ISBN : 9781351702799
Genre :
File Size : 25.23 MB
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The Plight of Rome in the Fifth Century AD argues that the fall of the western Roman Empire was rooted in a significant drop in war booty, agricultural productivity, and mineral resources. Merrony proposes that a dependency on the three economic components was established with the Principate, when a precedent was set for an unsustainable threshold on military spending. Drawing on literary and archaeological data, this volume establishes a correspondence between booty (in the form of slaves and precious metals) from foreign campaigns and public building programmes, and how this equilibrium was upset after the Empire reached its full expansion and began to contract in the third century. It is contended that this trend was exacerbated by the systematic loss of agricultural productivity (principally grain, but also livestock), as successive barbarian tribes were settled and wrested control from the imperial authorities in the fifth century. Merrony explores how Rome was weakened and divided, unable to pay its army, feed its people, or support the imperial bureaucracy - and how this contributed to its administrative collapse.
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