The Politics Of Resentment

Author : Katherine J. Cramer
ISBN : 9780226349251
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 85.25 MB
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Since the election of Scott Walker, Wisconsin has been seen as ground zero for debates about the appropriate role of government in the wake of the Great Recession. In a time of rising inequality, Walker not only survived a bitterly contested recall that brought thousands of protesters to Capitol Square, he was subsequently reelected. How could this happen? How is it that the very people who stand to benefit from strong government services not only vote against the candidates who support those services but are vehemently against the very idea of big government? With The Politics of Resentment, Katherine J. Cramer uncovers an oft-overlooked piece of the puzzle: rural political consciousness and the resentment of the “liberal elite.” Rural voters are distrustful that politicians will respect the distinct values of their communities and allocate a fair share of resources. What can look like disagreements about basic political principles are therefore actually rooted in something even more fundamental: who we are as people and how closely a candidate’s social identity matches our own. Using Scott Walker and Wisconsin’s prominent and protracted debate about the appropriate role of government, Cramer illuminates the contours of rural consciousness, showing how place-based identities profoundly influence how people understand politics, regardless of whether urban politicians and their supporters really do shortchange or look down on those living in the country. The Politics of Resentment shows that rural resentment—no less than partisanship, race, or class—plays a major role in dividing America against itself.
Category: Political Science

Legacies Of Losing In American Politics

Author : Jeffrey K. Tulis
ISBN : 9780226515465
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 26.39 MB
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American politics is typically a story about winners. The fading away of defeated politicians and political movements is a feature of American politics that ensures political stability and a peaceful transition of power. But American history has also been built on defeated candidates, failed presidents, and social movements that at pivotal moments did not dissipate as expected but instead persisted and eventually achieved success for the loser’s ideas and preferred policies. With Legacies of Losing in American Politics, Jeffrey K. Tulis and Nicole Mellow rethink three pivotal moments in American political history: the founding, when anti-Federalists failed to stop the ratification of the Constitution; the aftermath of the Civil War, when President Andrew Johnson’s plan for restoring the South to the Union was defeated; and the 1964 presidential campaign, when Barry Goldwater’s challenge to the New Deal order was soundly defeated by Lyndon B. Johnson. In each of these cases, the very mechanisms that caused the initial failures facilitated their eventual success. After the dust of the immediate political defeat settled, these seemingly discredited ideas and programs disrupted political convention by prevailing, often subverting, and occasionally enhancing constitutional fidelity. Tulis and Mellow present a nuanced story of winning and losing and offer a new understanding of American political development as the interweaving of opposing ideas.
Category: Political Science

Legislative Style

Author : William Bernhard
ISBN : 9780226510286
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 47.54 MB
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Once elected, congresspeople face choices about how to allocate their time and effort. What is the right balance between working in the district and on Capitol Hill? How much legislation should they introduce? On which issues should they focus? What is the optimal amount of time to spend fundraising? To what extent should they toe the party line? William Bernhard and Tracy Sulkin argue that, together, these decisions define a congressperson's "legislative style." They contend that legislators adopt styles that align with their ambitions, experiences, personal inclinations, and their electoral and institutional constraints. In turn, legislative styles shape the nature of representation that constituents receive, the scope and content of the policy legacy that members leave, and the paths their careers take. In this book they develop ways to measure the choices members make and create a typology of "legislative style." The authors start by describing data they collected on sixteen indicators of legislative activity including the proportion of staff allocated to district offices, number of bills introduced, number of speeches given on the floor, total amount of money raised, and percentage of the time the member voted with the party. They then group this data into eight indices, each reflecting a component of legislative style. They rate each congressperson from the 101st to the 110th Congress according to the number of activities in each index and come up with characterizations of their styles. They describe five styles: policy specialists, party soldier, district advocate, party builders, and ambitious entrepreneurs. They argue that members develop fairly consistent styles although they can change over time. They look at the members during each Congress and track their careers to measure change over time. This study enables us to better understand the choices legislators make and the consequences these choices have for them.
Category: Political Science

Why Parties Matter

Author : John H. Aldrich
ISBN : 9780226495378
Genre : Democracy
File Size : 69.82 MB
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Party competition in the South has been a subject of perennial interest to political scientists at least since V. O. Key's famous 1949 book on southern politics. The fascination stems from the fact that, unlike every other region in in the United States, for much of its history there has been precious little party competition in the South. Why Parties Matter argues that a competitive party system is essential in order to have the public's preferences and wants expressed and satisfied in elections. Or, in other words, a competitive party system is necessary for democracy to operate effectively. Aldrich and Griffin focus on the history of political parties, electoral competition, and effective democratic governance in the south during four historical eras - the Whig period that preceded the Civil War, the period after Reconstruction, the Jim Crow era, and the modern era. In each instance, they trace how party competition emerges and the conditions under which it can fail or succeed. While many scholars have argued that strong parties at the national level are necessary for change at the state or local level, the authors bring much evidence to bear showing that it is, instead, a bottom-up, candidate-centered phenomenon. Party competition arises when aspiring office holders determine that their prospects for a successful career are greater in what they call a "nascent party." These candidates first put together a party organization on the local level. Organizing then moves to the state level, and only when the party is solidified at that level will it be able to find sustained success at the national (Congressional) level. In the Whig period, the legacies of the pre-Jacksonian era stunted the development of a Southern party system, but the region was catching up to the North in terms of party competition in the years prior to the collapse of the Whig Party just before the Civil War. In the post-Reconstruction period, a nascent two-party system was abruptly and dramatically thwarted by the "Redemption" of the South by the white southern Democratic Party and in the Jim Crow period, competitive politics virtually disappeared. In the modern era, they find, by virtually every measure, that the Southern party system has caught up to the party system in the North, despite the seeming dominance of the Republican party in much of the south. According to the authors since 1980 the South has progressively become more electorally competitive, and, as a consequence of these more competitive elections, Southern elected officials, according to the authors, have become measurably more responsive to their constituents. In their concluding chapter, Aldrich and Griffin evaluate how, over time, democratic attitudes and behaviors in the South have evolved as compared to the North as the South has acquired a more developed party system and more competitive elections and they also assess the effectiveness of government in the two regions over time.
Category: Democracy

Neither Liberal Nor Conservative

Author : Donald R. Kinder
ISBN : 9780226452456
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 48.91 MB
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Congress is crippled by ideological conflict. The political parties are more polarized today than at any time since the Civil War. Americans disagree, fiercely, about just about everything, from terrorism and national security, to taxes and government spending, to immigration and gay marriage. Well, American elites disagree fiercely. But average Americans do not. This, at least, was the position staked out by Philip Converse in his famous essay on belief systems, which drew on surveys carried out during the Eisenhower Era to conclude that most Americans were innocent of ideology. In Neither Liberal nor Conservative, Donald Kinder and Nathan Kalmoe argue that ideological innocence applies nearly as well to the current state of American public opinion. Real liberals and real conservatives are found in impressive numbers only among those who are deeply engaged in political life. The ideological battles between American political elites show up as scattered skirmishes in the general public, if they show up at all. If ideology is out of reach for all but a few who are deeply and seriously engaged in political life, how do Americans decide whom to elect president; whether affirmative action is good or bad? Kinder and Kalmoe offer a persuasive group-centered answer. Political preferences arise less from ideological differences than from the attachments and antagonisms of group life.
Category: Political Science

Civic Hope

Author : Rodrick P. Hart
ISBN : 9781108422642
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 90.39 MB
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Based on a highly original analysis of 10,000 letters to the editor from 1948 through the present, Civic Hope is the most capacious history to date of what ordinary Americans think about politics and how they engage in argument.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Social Theory After The Internet

Author : Ralph Schroeder
ISBN : 9781787351226
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 63.50 MB
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The internet has fundamentally transformed society in the past 25 years, yet existing theories of mass or interpersonal communication do not work well in understanding a digital world. Nor has this understanding been helped by disciplinary specialization and a continual focus on the latest innovations. Ralph Schroeder takes a longer-term view, synthesizing perspectives and findings from various social science disciplines in four countries: the United States, Sweden, India and China. His comparison highlights, among other observations, that smartphones are in many respects more important than PC-based internet uses. Social Theory after the Internet focuses on everyday uses and effects of the internet, including information seeking and big data, and explains how the internet has gone beyond traditional media in, for example, enabling Donald Trump and Narendra Modi to come to power. Schroeder puts forward a sophisticated theory of the role of the internet, and how both technological and social forces shape its significance. He provides a sweeping and penetrating study, theoretically ambitious and at the same time always empirically grounded.The book will be of great interest to students and scholars of digital media and society, the internet and politics, and the social implications of big data.
Category: Social Science

Was Ist Populismus

Author : Jan-Werner Müller
ISBN : 9783518740859
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 29.96 MB
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Wer wird heute nicht alles als Populist bezeichnet: Gegner der Eurorettung, Figuren wie Marine Le Pen, Politiker des Mainstream, die meinen, dem Volk aufs Maul schauen zu müssen. Vielleicht ist ein Populist aber auch einfach nur ein populärer Konkurrent, dessen Programm man nicht mag, wie Ralf Dahrendorf einmal anmerkte? Lässt sich das Phänomen schärfer umreißen und seine Ursachen erklären? Worin besteht der Unterschied zwischen Rechts- und Linkspopulismus? Jan-Werner Müller nimmt aktuelle Entwicklungen zum Ausgangspunkt, um eine Theorie des Populismus zu skizzieren und Populismus letztlich klar von der Demokratie abzugrenzen. Seine Thesen helfen zudem, neue Strategien in der Auseinandersetzung mit Populisten zu entwickeln.
Category: Political Science

Kampf Der Eliten

Author : Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser
ISBN : 9783593390437
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 86.52 MB
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Aus diesem Blickwinkel müssen Bildung und Erneuerung der Eliten als Prozesse von langer Dauer verstanden werden, die entscheidend für die historische Entwicklung aller Gesellschaften sind. Auf Grundlage dieser theoretischen Diskussion untersucht das Buch die Geschichte Lateinamerikas von der politischen Emanzipation von Europa bis zum ökonomischen Zusammenbruch von 1982. Dabei stehen Argentinien, Brasilien, Chile und Mexiko im Fokus, so dass vier Länder im Detail vergleichend untersucht werden. Der Autor lenkt den Blick auf die Frage, inwiefern gemeinsame Probleme - etwa die politische Unabhängigkeit von Europa, die Formierung des Staates oder der Umgang mit der sozialen Frage - von den jeweiligen Eliten eines Landes unterschiedlich wahrgenommen und gelöst worden sind.-
Category: Social Science