<![CDATA[athena.]]>http://157.230.217.118:3002/http://157.230.217.118:3002/favicon.pngathena.http://157.230.217.118:3002/Ghost 2.28Sun, 22 Sep 2019 10:55:19 GMT60<![CDATA[Photos: A beautiful image gallery of historic places]]>http://157.230.217.118:3002/photos-a-beautiful-image-gallery-of-historic-places/5bca3e7e1b75350001ab383eFri, 19 Oct 2018 20:45:41 GMTBut I must explain to you how all this mistaken idea of denouncing pleasure and praising pain was born and I will give you a complete account of the system, and expound the actual teachings of the great explorer of the truth, the master-builder of human happiness. No one rejects, dislikes, or avoids pleasure itself, because it is pleasure, but because those who do not know how to pursue pleasure rationally encounter consequences that are extremely painful. Nor again is there anyone who loves or pursues or desires to obtain pain of itself, because it is pain, but because occasionally circumstances occur in which toil and pain can procure him some great pleasure. To take a trivial example, which of us ever undertakes laborious physical exercise, except to obtain some advantage from it? But who has any right to find fault with a man who chooses to enjoy a pleasure that has no annoying consequences, or one who avoids a pain that produces no resultant pleasure?

But I must explain to you how all this mistaken idea of denouncing pleasure and praising pain was born and I will give you a complete account of the system, and expound the actual teachings of the great explorer of the truth, the master-builder of human happiness. No one rejects, dislikes, or avoids pleasure itself, because it is pleasure, but because those who do not know how to pursue pleasure rationally encounter consequences that are extremely painful. Nor again is there anyone who loves or pursues or desires to obtain pain of itself, because it is pain, but because occasionally circumstances occur in which toil and pain can procure him some great pleasure. To take a trivial example, which of us ever undertakes laborious physical exercise, except to obtain some advantage from it? But who has any right to find fault with a man who chooses to enjoy a pleasure that has no annoying consequences, or one who avoids a pain that produces no resultant pleasure?

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<![CDATA[Was Judgement of Paris just a story?]]>http://157.230.217.118:3002/was-judgement-of-paris-just-a-story/5bca3c661b75350001ab3833Fri, 19 Oct 2018 20:27:25 GMT

As with many mythological tales, details vary depending on the source. The brief allusion to the Judgement in the Iliad (24.25–30) shows that the episode initiating all the subsequent action was already familiar to its audience; a fuller version was told in the Cypria, a lost work of the Epic Cycle, of which only fragments (and a reliable summary) remain. The later writers Ovid (Heroides 16.71ff, 149–152 and 5.35f), Lucian(Dialogues of the Gods 20), Pseudo-Apollodorus (Bibliotheca, E.3.2) and Hyginus (Fabulae 92), retell the story with skeptical, ironic or popularizing agendas. It appeared wordlessly on the ivory and gold votive chest of the 7th-century BC tyrant Cypselus at Olympia, which was described by Pausanias as showing:

... Hermes bringing to Alexander [i.e. Paris] the son of Priam the goddesses of whose beauty he is to judge, the inscription on them being: 'Here is Hermes, who is showing to Alexander, that he may arbitrate concerning their beauty, Hera, Athena and Aphrodite.

The subject was favoured by painters of red-figure pottery as early as the sixth century BC, and remained popular in Greek and Roman art, before enjoying a significant revival, as an opportunity to show three female nudes, in the Renaissance.

The subject became popular in art from the late Middle Ages onwards. All three goddesses were usually shown nude, though in ancient art only Aphrodite is ever unclothed, and not always. The opportunity for three female nudes was a large part of the attraction of the subject. It appeared in illuminated manuscripts and was popular in decorative art, including 15th-century Italian inkstands and other works in maiolica, and cassoni. As a subject for easel paintings, it was more common in Northern Europe, although Marcantonio Raimondi's engraving of c. 1515, probably based on a drawing by Raphael, and using a composition derived from a Roman sarcophagus, was a highly influential treatment, which made Paris's Phrygian cap an attribute in most later versions.

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<![CDATA[Athena: The Greek goddess of wisdom]]>http://157.230.217.118:3002/athena-the-greek-goddess/5bca3a9c1b75350001ab3821Fri, 19 Oct 2018 20:18:27 GMT

Athena or Athene, often given the epithet Pallas, is an ancient Greek goddess associated with wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.[3] Athena was regarded as the patron and protectress of various cities across Greece, particularly the city of Athens, from which she most likely received her name.[4] She is usually shown in art wearing a helmet and holding a spear. Her major symbols include owls, olive trees, snakes, and the Gorgoneion.

From her origin as an Aegean palace goddess, Athena was closely associated with the city. She was known as Polias and Poliouchos (both derived from polis, meaning "city-state"), and her temples were usually located atop the fortified Acropolis in the central part of the city. The Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis is dedicated to her, along with numerous other temples and monuments. As the patron of craft and weaving, Athena was known as Ergane. She was also a warrior goddess, and was believed to lead soldiers into battle as Athena Promachos. Her main festival in Athens was the Panathenaia, which was celebrated during the month of Hekatombaion in midsummer and was the most important festival on the Athenian calendar.

Athena: The Greek goddess of wisdom
Photo by Sam Wermut / Unsplash

In Greek mythology, Athena was believed to have been born from the head of her father Zeus. In the founding myth of Athens, Athena bested Poseidon in a competition over patronage of the city by creating the first olive tree. She was known as Athena Parthenos ("Athena the Virgin"), but, in one archaic Attic myth, the god Hephaestus tried and failed to rape her, resulting in Gaia giving birth to Erichthonius, an important Athenian founding hero. Athena was the patron goddess of heroic endeavor; she was believed to have also aided the heroes Perseus, Heracles, Bellerophon, and Jason. Along with Aphrodite and Hera, Athena was one of the three goddesses whose feud resulted in the beginning of the Trojan War. She plays an active role in the Iliad, in which she assists the Achaeans and, in the Odyssey, she is the divine counselor to Odysseus.

Etymology

Athena is associated with the city of Athens. The name of the city in ancient Greek is Ἀθῆναι (Athenai), a plural toponym, designating the place where—according to myth—she presided over the Athenai, a sisterhood devoted to her worship. In ancient times, scholars argued whether Athena was named after Athens or Athens after Athena.

This is she who has the mind of God [ἁ θεονόα, a theonóa). Perhaps, however, the name Theonoe may mean "she who knows divine things" [τὰ θεῖα νοοῦσα, ta theia noousa] better than others. Nor shall we be far wrong in supposing that the author of it wished to identify this Goddess with moral intelligence [εν έθει νόεσιν, en éthei nóesin], and therefore gave her the name Etheonoe; which, however, either he or his successors have altered into what they thought a nicer form, and called her Athena.

Thus, Plato believed that Athena's name was derived from Greek Ἀθεονόα, Atheonóa—which the later Greeks rationalised as from the deity's (θεός, theós) mind (νοῦς, noũs). The second-century AD orator Aelius Aristides attempted to derive natural symbols from the etymological roots of Athena's names to be aether, air, earth, and moon.

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<![CDATA[Thor, the Nordic God]]>http://157.230.217.118:3002/thor-the-thunder-god/5bc94a891b75350001ab37f3Mon, 10 Sep 2018 19:28:18 GMT

In Germanic mythology, Thor (/θɔːr/; from Old Norse: Þórr) is a hammer-wielding god associated with thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, and also hallowing and fertility. Besides Old Norse Þórr, extensions of the god occur in Old English as Þunor, and in Old High German as Donar (runic þonar ᚦᛟᚾᚨᚱ). All forms of the deity stem from a Common Germanic *Þunraz (meaning 'thunder').

Thor is a prominently mentioned god throughout the recorded history of the Germanic peoples, from the Roman occupation of regions of Germania, to the tribal expansions of the Migration Period, to his high popularity during the Viking Age, when, in the face of the process of the Christianization of Scandinavia, emblems of his hammer, Mjölnir, were worn and Norse pagan personal names containing the name of the god bear witness to his popularity.

Due to the nature of the Germanic corpus, narratives featuring  Thor are only attested in Old Norse, where Thor appears throughout Norse mythology. Norse mythology, largely recorded in Iceland from traditional material stemming from Scandinavia, provides numerous  tales featuring the god. In these sources, Thor bears at least fifteen names, is the husband of the golden-haired goddess Sif, is the lover of the jötunn Járnsaxa, and is generally described as fierce eyed, red haired and red bearded. With Sif, Thor fathered the goddess (and possible valkyrie) Þrúðr; with Járnsaxa, he fathered Magni; with a mother whose name is not recorded, he fathered Móði, and he is the stepfather of the god Ullr. By way of Odin, Thor has numerous brothers, including Baldr. Thor has two servants, Þjálfi and Röskva, rides in a cart or chariot pulled by two goats, Tanngrisnir and Tanngnjóstr (that he eats and resurrects), and is ascribed three dwellings (Bilskirnir, Þrúðheimr, and Þrúðvangr). Thor wields the mountain-crushing hammer, Mjölnir, wears the belt Megingjörð and the iron gloves Járngreipr, and owns the staff Gríðarvölr. Thor's exploits, including his relentless slaughter of his foes and fierce battles with the monstrous serpent Jörmungandr—and their foretold mutual deaths during the events of Ragnarök—are recorded throughout sources for Norse mythology.

Into the modern period, Thor continued to be acknowledged in rural folklore throughout Germanic-speaking Europe. Thor is frequently referred to in place names, the day of the week Thursday bears his name (modern English Thursday derives from Old English Þūnresdæg,  'Þunor's day'), and names stemming from the pagan period containing his  own continue to be used today, particularly in Scandinavia. Thor has  inspired numerous works of art and references to Thor appear in modern  popular culture. Like other Germanic deities, veneration of Thor is  revived in the modern period in Heathenry.

In modern times, Thor continues to be referred to in popular culture. Starting with F. J. Klopstock's 1776 ode to Thor, Wir und Sie, Thor has been the subject of poems in several languages, including Adam Gottlob Oehlenschläger's 1807 epic poem Thors reise til Jotunheim and, by the same author, three more poems (Hammeren hentes, Thors fiskeri, and Thor besøger Hymir) collected in his 1819 Nordens Guder; Thors Trunk (1859) by Wilhelm Hertz; the 1820 satirical poem Mythologierne eller Gudatvisten by J. M. Stiernstolpe; Nordens Mythologie eller Sinnbilled-Sprog (1832) by N. F. S. Grundtvig; the poem Harmen by Thor Thorild; Der Mythus von Thor (1836) by Ludwig Uhland; Der Hammer Thors (1915) by W. Schulte v. Brühl; Hans Friedrich Blunck's Herr Dunnar und die Bauern (published in Märchen und Sagen, 1937); and Die Heimholung des Hammers (1977) by H. C. Artmann.

Source: Wikipedia.

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<![CDATA[A peek into Scandinavia's origin]]>http://157.230.217.118:3002/a-peak-into-scandinavias-origin/5bc94a891b75350001ab37f2Mon, 10 Sep 2018 19:18:26 GMT

The name Scandinavia originally referred to the former Danish, now Swedish, region of Scania. Scandinavia and Scandinavian entered usage in the late 18th century, being introduced by the early linguistic and cultural Scandinavist movement. The majority of the population of Scandinavia are descended from  several North Germanic tribes who originally inhabited the southern part  of Scandinavia and spoke a Germanic language that evolved into Old Norse. Icelanders and the Faroese are to a significant extent descended from the Norse and are therefore  often seen as Scandinavian. Finland is mainly populated by Finns, with a minority of approximately 5% of Swedish speakers. A small minority of Sami people live in the extreme north of Scandinavia. The Danish, Norwegian and Swedish languages form a dialect continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered mutually intelligible with one another. Faroese and Icelandic,  sometimes referred to as insular Scandinavian languages, are  intelligible in continental Scandinavian languages only to a limited  extent. Finnish and Meänkieli are closely related to each other and more distantly to the Sami languages, but are entirely unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Apart from these, German, Yiddish and Romani are recognized minority languages in parts of Scandinavia.

Iceland topography

"Scandinavia" refers to Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Some sources argue for the inclusion of the Faroe Islands, Finland and Iceland, though that broader region is usually known by the countries concerned as Norden (Finnish: Pohjoismaat, Icelandic: Norðurlöndin, Faroese: Norðurlond), or the Nordic countries.

Scandinavia originally referred vaguely to Scania, a formerly Danish region that became Swedish in the 17th century. Scandinavia according to the local definition   The extended usage in English, which includes Iceland and the Faroe Islands, the Åland Islands and Finland.

The use of "Scandinavia" as a convenient general term for Denmark,  Norway and Sweden is fairly recent. According to some historians, it was  adopted and introduced in the eighteenth century, at a time when the  ideas about a common heritage started to appear and develop into early  literary and linguistic Scandinavism. Before this time, the term "Scandinavia" was familiar mainly to classical scholars through Pliny the Elder's writings and was used vaguely for Scania and the southern region of the peninsula.

As a political term, Scandinavia was first used by students agitating for pan-Scandinavianism in the 1830s. The popular usage of the term in Sweden, Denmark and Norway as a  unifying concept became established in the nineteenth century through  poems such as Hans Christian Andersen's  "I am a Scandinavian" of 1839. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became  a supporter of early political Scandinavism. In a letter describing the  poem to a friend, he wrote:

"All at once I understood how related the  Swedes, the Danes and the Norwegians are, and with this feeling I wrote  the poem immediately after my return: 'We are one people, we are called  Scandinavians!'"

The clearest example of the use of Scandinavia is Finland,  based largely on the fact that most of modern-day Finland was part of  the Swedish kingdom for hundreds of years, thus to much of the world  associating Finland with all of Scandinavia. However, the creation of a  Finnish identity is unique in the region in that it was formed in  relation to two different imperial models, the Swedish and the Russian, as described by the University of Jyväskylä based editorial board of the Finnish journal Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History.

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<![CDATA[Astronomers announce discovering ten tiny Jovian satellites]]>http://157.230.217.118:3002/astronomers-announce-discovering-ten-tiny-jovian-satellites/5bc94a891b75350001ab37f1Mon, 10 Sep 2018 19:01:47 GMT

On Tuesday, astronomers of the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, DC, United States, announced the discovery of ten small satellites orbiting Jupiter. With this discovery, Jupiter now has 79 known satellites.

The team led by Scott Sheppard had discovered twelve of the 79 Jovian satellites, including Tuesday's ten, mostly using a Blanco 4-meter telescope of Chile's Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The observatory is operated by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory in the US. The tiny satellites, none more than five kilometres in  diameter, were first observed in 2017. Orbits of these new Jovian  satellites were calculated by International Astronomical Union's Minor Planet Center's Gareth Williams.  Williams explained, "It takes several observations to confirm an object  actually orbits around Jupiter [...] So, the whole process took a  year."

The astronomers were looking for planets much farther out than Pluto. Sheppard said, "Jupiter just happened to be in the sky near the search fields where we were looking for extremely distant Solar System objects, so we were serendipitously able to look for new moons around Jupiter while at the same time looking for planets at the fringes of our Solar System".

Made by Hans Zimmer.

Of the twelve satellites discovered by the team, nine were found to be retrograde,  revolving around the gas giant in the direction opposite to the  planet's spin. These nine new retrograde satellites take about two years  to complete one revolution around Jupiter.

The remaining three satellites were prograde, spinning in the  same direction as Jupiter's rotation. One of the prograde satellites,  newly announced on Tuesday, took about one-and-half years to complete  one revolution around Jupiter, and its orbit intersected with the outer  retrograde satellites. Sheppard said, "Our other discovery is a real  oddball and has an orbit like no other known Jovian moon [...] It's also  likely Jupiter's smallest known moon, being less than one kilometre in  diameter". The astronomer also said, "This is an unstable situation  [...] Head-on collisions would quickly break apart and grind the objects  down to dust."

Sheppard said of the composition of those satellites, they "started orbiting Jupiter, instead of falling into it. So we think they  are intermediate between rocky asteroids and icy comets. So they are  probably half ice and half rock."

"Valetudo" is the name suggested for the "oddball" satellite. Valetudo was the Roman god Jupiter's great-granddaughter, regarded as the goddess of health and hygiene.

Sheppard said:

Jupiter is like a big vacuum cleaner because it is so massive.

Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System, with a  diameter about 142,984 kilometres. The largest known satellite in the  Solar System is Jupiter's Ganymede, whose diameter is approximately 5268 kilometres. Saturn has the second-most known satellites: 62, while Uranus has 27.

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<![CDATA[Fossil genome shows hybrid of two extinct species of human]]>http://157.230.217.118:3002/fossil-genome/5bc94a891b75350001ab37f0Mon, 10 Sep 2018 17:57:20 GMT

A team of scientists has announced remains of a human girl from about 50 thousand years ago had one Neanderthal parent and one Denisovan parent, two different species of humans, both species now extinct. The results, from genomic tests in Leipzig, Germany of fossil bone from Siberia, Russia, were published on Wednesday in scientific journal Nature.  The researchers said this is the first discovery of a child with parents of different human species.

The single fossilized bone fragment, about two centimetres (less than an inch) long, which researchers said was from a girl at least 13 years old, was found in 2012 in the Denisova Cave in Siberia.  The Denisovan species of humans is only directly known  from the same cave, where it was discovered in 2011; the cave is also  the only site where both Nenderthal and Denisovan remains have been  found.  Neanderthals have been found in Europe and Asia.  Traces of  genes from both species occur in some modern humans.  Researchers found  the nuclear DNA in this bone fragment was split fairly evenly between both species, while the mitochondrial DNA was Neanderthal; nuclear DNA comes from both parents, while  mitochondrial DNA comes only from the mother, so they concluded the  girl's mother was Neanderthal and her father Denisovan.

Lead author on the study Viviane Slon, of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (MPI-EVA) in Leipzig, said:

We knew from previous studies that Neanderthals and Denisovans must have  occasionally had children together [...] But I never thought we would  be so lucky as to find an actual offspring of the two groups.

The team rechecked the findings several times.  Scientist Johannes Krause, of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, called the finding "sensational".  Study coauthor Svante Pääbo,  of MPI-EVA, remarked on the improbability of discovering such a hybrid  when only two dozen human genomes over 40 thousand years old — when the  other species of humans were still around — have been done:

The fact that we stumbled across this makes you wonder if the mixing  wasn't quite frequent [...] Had it happened frequently, we would not  have such divergence between the Denisovans and Neanderthal genomes.

The researchers also noted the girl's father, though Denisovan, had a  trace of Neanderthal DNA, from perhaps as much as several hundred  generations earlier. They also reported the mother's DNA was not closely  related to that of other Neanderthals found in the cave, suggesting  multiple migrations of Neanderthals between Siberia and Europe.

Source: WikiNews.

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<![CDATA[Manchester City beats Chelsea 2-0]]>On Sunday, defending EnglishPremier League winners Manchester City defeated London-based football club Chelsea FC 2–0 at the Wembley Stadium to win the 2018 Community Shield. Sergio Agüero scored one goal in each half as Manchester City added another trophy to their collection.


Manchester City had greater ball

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http://157.230.217.118:3002/manchester-city-beats-chelsea-2-0/5bc94a891b75350001ab37efMon, 10 Sep 2018 17:47:29 GMT

On Sunday, defending EnglishPremier League winners Manchester City defeated London-based football club Chelsea FC 2–0 at the Wembley Stadium to win the 2018 Community Shield. Sergio Agüero scored one goal in each half as Manchester City added another trophy to their collection.


Manchester City had greater ball possession in the match. In the first ten minutes of the first half, Agüero, Leroy Sané and Riyad Mahrez, who was playing his first match for Manchester City, attempted to open the scoring. In the 11th minute, Chelsea's forward Pedro was caught offside as his Spanish compatriot Cesc Fàbregas attempted a through ball. In the 13th minute, Agüero scored the opener from Phil Foden's  assist, giving Manchester City an early lead. It was Agüero's 200th  goal for Man City, making him the first player in the club's history to  score 200 goals. He tried to double the lead in the 18th minute, but his  shot was saved by Chelsea's goalkeeper Willy Caballero. Álvaro Morata missed a chance in the 25th minute to equalise. After the half-hour mark, Callum Hudson-Odoi tried to level up for Chelsea but was saved by Man City's shot-stopper Claudio Bravo. The first half ended with Man City leading 1–0.

Manchester City beats Chelsea 2-0
Photo by Fachry Zella Devandra / Unsplash

At the beginning of the second half, Leroy Sané was substituted off and he was replaced by his national teammate Ilkay Gündogan.  Agüero, in the 50th minute, dribbled past Caballero but his shot missed  the target and hit the side netting. A couple of minutes later, Foden's  shot was saved by Caballero. In the 58th minute, Agüero scored the  second goal of the match, from Bernardo Silva's assist. Chelsea made a double substitution after the second goal as Willian and Dani Drinkwater came on for Hudson-Odoi and Fàbregas. In the 68th minute, Brazilian forward Gabriel Jesus, who recently added a two-year term to his contract, came on for Mahrez. Agüero was replaced with defender Vincent Kompany in the 80th minute. The task was done, for Chelsea could not get the  ball in Man City's net as the Premier League winners won the match 2–0.

After the match, Chelsea's manager Maurizio Sarri said:

The performance was not bad in the first half but in the second half  there was a big difference from a physical point of view, so we have to  work [...] I am worried about the defensive phase — not the defenders.  We have to improve, especially on the other half.

Source: WikiNews.

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<![CDATA[A quick look to Iceland landscapes]]>http://157.230.217.118:3002/ireland/5bc94a891b75350001ab37eeMon, 10 Sep 2018 17:30:31 GMT

The climate of Iceland's coast is subarctic. The warm North Atlantic Current ensures generally higher annual temperatures than in most places of  similar latitude in the world. Regions in the world with similar  climates include the Aleutian Islands, the Alaska Peninsula, and Tierra del Fuego,  although these regions are closer to the equator. Despite its proximity  to the Arctic, the island's coasts remain ice-free through the winter.  Ice incursions are rare, the last having occurred on the north coast in 1969.

The climate varies between different parts of the island.  Generally speaking, the south coast is warmer, wetter, and windier than  the north. The Central Highlands are the coldest part of the country.  Low-lying inland areas in the north are the most arid. Snowfall in  winter is more common in the north than the south.

A quick look to Iceland landscapes
Photo by Jonathan Percy / Unsplash

The highest air temperature recorded was 30.5 °C (86.9 °F) on 22  June 1939 at Teigarhorn on the southeastern coast. The lowest was −38 °C  (−36.4 °F) on 22 January 1918 at Grímsstaðir and Möðrudalur in the  northeastern hinterland. The temperature records for Reykjavík are  26.2 °C (79.2 °F) on 30 July 2008, and −24.5 °C (−12.1 °F) on 21 January  1918.

Biodiversity

Around 1,300 species of insects are known in Iceland. This is low  compared with other countries (over one million species have been  described worldwide). Iceland is essentially free of mosquitoes. The only native land mammal when humans arrived was the Arctic fox, which came to the island at the end of the ice age, walking over the  frozen sea. On rare occasions, bats have been carried to the island with  the winds, but they are not able to breed there. Polar bears occasionally come over from Greenland, but they are just visitors, and no Icelandic populations exist. No native or free-living reptiles or amphibians are on the island.

Phytogeographically, Iceland belongs to the Arctic province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom.  Around three-quarters of the island is barren of vegetation; plant life  consists mainly of grassland, which is regularly grazed by livestock.  The most common tree native to Iceland is the northern birch (Betula pubescens), which formerly formed forests over much of Iceland, along with aspens (Populus tremula), rowans (Sorbus aucuparia), common junipers (Juniperus communis), and other smaller trees, mainly willows.

A quick look to Iceland landscapes
Photo by Jasmin Schreiber / Unsplash

When the island was first settled, it was extensively forested. In the late 12th century, Ari the Wise described it in the Íslendingabók as "forested from mountain to sea shore". Permanent human settlement greatly disturbed the isolated ecosystem of thin, volcanic soils and limited species diversity. The forests were heavily exploited over the centuries for firewood and timber. Deforestation, climatic deterioration during the Little Ice Age, and overgrazing by sheep imported by settlers caused a loss of critical topsoil due to erosion.  Today, many farms have been abandoned. Three-quarters of Iceland's  100,000 square kilometres is affected by soil erosion, 18,000 km2 (6,900 sq mi) serious enough to make the land useless. Only a few small birch stands now exist in isolated reserves. The  planting of new forests has increased the number of trees, but the  result does not compare to the original forests. Some of the planted  forests include introduced species. The tallest tree in Iceland is a sitka spruce planted in 1949 in Kirkjubæjarklaustur; it was measured at 25.2 m (83 ft) in 2013.

The animals of Iceland include the Icelandic sheep, cattle, chickens, goats, the sturdy Icelandic horse, and the Icelandic Sheepdog, all descendants of animals imported by Europeans. Wild mammals include the Arctic fox, mink, mice, rats, rabbits, and reindeer.  Polar bears occasionally visit the island, travelling on icebergs from  Greenland. In June 2008, two polar bears arrived in the same month. Marine mammals include the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Many species of fish live in the ocean waters surrounding Iceland, and the fishing industry is a major part of Iceland's economy, accounting for roughly half of  the country's total exports. Birds, especially seabirds, are an  important part of Iceland's animal life. Puffins, skuas, and kittiwakes nest on its sea cliffs.

A quick look to Iceland landscapes
Photo by Jonathan Gallegos / Unsplash

Commercial whaling is practised intermittently along with scientific whale hunts.Whale watching has become an important part of Iceland's economy since 1997.

Source: Wikipedia.

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<![CDATA[Everything you need to know about Valkyries]]>http://157.230.217.118:3002/everything-you-need-to-know-about-valkyries/5bc94a891b75350001ab37edMon, 10 Sep 2018 17:08:43 GMT

In Norse mythology, a valkyrie (/vælˈkɪəri, -ˈkaɪri, vɑːl-, ˈvælkəri/; from Old Norse valkyrja "chooser of the slain") is one of a host of female figures who choose  those who may die in battle and those who may live. Selecting among half  of those who die in battle (the other half go to the goddess Freyja's afterlife field Fólkvangr), the valkyries bring their chosen to the afterlife hall of the slain, Valhalla, ruled over by the god Odin. There, the deceased warriors become einherjar (Old Norse "single (or once) fighters"). When the einherjar are not preparing for the events of Ragnarök, the valkyries bear them mead.  Valkyries also appear as lovers of heroes and other mortals, where they  are sometimes described as the daughters of royalty, sometimes  accompanied by ravens and sometimes connected to swans or horses.

Everything you need to know about Valkyries
Photo by Tiago Almeida / Unsplash

Valkyries are attested in the Poetic Edda (a book of poems compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources), the Prose Edda, the Heimskringla (both by Snorri Sturluson) and the Njáls saga (one of the Sagas of Icelanders), all written—or compiled—in the 13th century. They appear throughout the poetry of skalds, in a 14th-century charm, and in various runic inscriptions.

The word valkyrie derives from Old Norse valkyrja (plural valkyrjur), which is composed of two words: the noun valr (referring to the slain on the battlefield) and the verb kjósa (meaning "to choose"). Together, they mean 'chooser of the slain'. The Old Norse valkyrja is cognate to Old English wælcyrge. From the Old English and Old Norse forms, philologist Vladimir Orel reconstructs the Proto-Germanic form *wala-kuzjōn. However, the term may have been borrowed into Old English from Old Norse: see discussion in the Old English attestations section below.

Other terms for valkyries in Old Norse sources include óskmey ("wish maid"), appearing in the poem Oddrúnargrátr and  Óðins meyjar ("Odin's maids"), appearing in the Nafnaþulur. Óskmey may be related to the Odinic name Óski (roughly meaning "wish fulfiller"), referring to the fact that Odin receives slain warriors in Valhalla.

Old Norse attestations

Valkyries are mentioned or appear in the Poetic Edda poems Völuspá, Grímnismál, Völundarkviða, Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar, Helgakviða Hundingsbana I, Helgakviða Hundingsbana II and Sigrdrífumál.

In the poem Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar,  a prose narrative says that an unnamed and silent young man, the son of  the Norwegian King Hjörvarðr and Sigrlinn of Sváfaland, witnesses nine  valkyries riding by while sitting atop a burial mound. He finds one particularly striking; this valkyrie is detailed later in a prose narrative as Sváva, King Eylimi's daughter, who "often protected him in battles". The valkyrie speaks to the unnamed man, and gives him the name Helgi (meaning "the holy one").  The previously silent Helgi speaks; he refers to the valkyrie as  "bright-face lady", and asks her what gift he will receive with the name she has bestowed upon him, but he will not accept it if he cannot have  her as well. The valkyrie tells him she knows of a hoard of swords in  Sigarsholm, and that one of them is of particular importance, which she  describes in detail. Further into the poem, Atli flytes with the female jötunnHrímgerðr.  While flyting with Atli, Hrímgerðr says that she had seen 27 valkyries  around Helgi, yet one particularly fair valkyrie led the band:

Three times nine girls, but one girl rode ahead, white-skinned under her helmet; the horses were trembling, from their manesdew fell into the deep valleys, hail in the high woods; good fortune comes to men from there; all that I saw was hateful to me.

Female figures and cup and horn-bearers

Viking Age stylized silver amulets depicting women wearing long gowns, their hair  pulled back and knotted into a ponytail, sometimes bearing drinking horns, have been discovered throughout Scandinavia. These figures are commonly considered to represent valkyries or dísir. According to Mindy MacLeod and Bernard Mees, the amulets appear in  Viking Age graves, and were presumably placed there because "they were  thought to have protective powers".

Source: Wikipedia.

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<![CDATA[Welcome to Ghost]]>http://157.230.217.118:3002/welcome-2/5bc94a891b75350001ab37faSun, 19 Aug 2018 20:27:46 GMTWe know that first impressions are important, so we've populated your new site with some initial Getting Started posts that will help you get familiar with everything in no time. This is the first one!

There are a few things that you should know up-front:

  1. Ghost is designed for ambitious, professional publishers who want to actively build a business around their content. That's who it works best for. If you're using Ghost for some other purpose, that's fine too - but it might not be the best choice for you.

  2. The entire platform can be modified and customized to suit your needs, which is very powerful, but doing so does require some knowledge of code. Ghost is not necessarily a good platform for beginners or people who just want a simple personal blog.

  3. For the best experience we recommend downloading the Ghost Desktop App for your computer, which is the best way to access your Ghost site on a desktop device.

Ghost is made by an independent non-profit organisation called the Ghost Foundation. We are 100% self funded by revenue from our Ghost(Pro) service, and every penny we make is re-invested into funding further development of free, open source technology for modern journalism.

The main thing you'll want to read about next is probably: the Ghost editor.

Once you're done reading, you can simply delete the default Ghost user from your team to remove all of these introductory posts!

Ghost is made by an independent non-profit organisation called the  Ghost Foundation. We are 100% self funded by revenue from our Ghost(Pro) service, and every penny we make is re-invested into funding further  development of free, open source technology for modern journalism.

The main thing you'll want to read about next is probably: the Ghost editor.

Once you're done reading, you can simply delete the default Ghost user from your team to remove all of these introductory posts!

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<![CDATA[Using the Ghost editor]]>Ghost uses a language called Markdown to format text.

When you go to edit a post and see special characters and colours intertwined between the words, those are Markdown shortcuts which tell Ghost what to do with the words in your document. The biggest benefit of Markdown is that you

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http://157.230.217.118:3002/the-editor-2/5bc94a891b75350001ab37f9Sun, 19 Aug 2018 20:27:45 GMT

Ghost uses a language called Markdown to format text.

When you go to edit a post and see special characters and colours intertwined between the words, those are Markdown shortcuts which tell Ghost what to do with the words in your document. The biggest benefit of Markdown is that you can quickly apply formatting as you type, without needing to pause.

At the bottom of the editor, you'll find a toolbar with basic formatting options to help you get started as easily as possible. You'll also notice that there's a ? icon, which contains more advanced shortcuts.

For now, though, let's run you through some of the basics. You'll want to make sure you're editing this post in order to see all the Markdown we've used.

Formatting text

The most common shortcuts are of course, bold text, italic text, and hyperlinks. These generally make up the bulk of any document. You can type the characters out, but you can also use keyboard shortcuts.

  • CMD/Ctrl + B for Bold
  • CMD/Ctrl + I for Italic
  • CMD/Ctrl + K for a Link
  • CMD/Ctrl + H for a Heading (Press multiple times for h2/h3/h4/etc)

With just a couple of extra characters here and there, you're well on your way to creating a beautifully formatted story.

Inserting images

Images in Markdown look just the same as links, except they're prefixed with an exclamation mark, like this:

![Image description](/path/to/image.jpg)

Using the Ghost editor

Most Markdown editors don't make you type this out, though. In Ghost you can click on the image icon in the toolbar at the bottom of the editor, or you can just click and drag an image from your desktop directly into the editor. Both will upload the image for you and generate the appropriate Markdown.

Important Note: Ghost does not currently have automatic image resizing, so it's always a good idea to make sure your images aren't gigantic files before uploading them to Ghost.

Making lists

Lists in HTML are a formatting nightmare, but in Markdown they become an absolute breeze with just a couple of characters and a bit of smart automation. For numbered lists, just write out the numbers. For bullet lists, just use * or - or +. Like this:

  1. Crack the eggs over a bowl
  2. Whisk them together
  3. Make an omelette

or

  • Remember to buy milk
  • Feed the cat
  • Come up with idea for next story

Adding quotes

When you want to pull out a particularly good excerpt in the middle of a piece, you can use > at the beginning of a paragraph to turn it into a Blockquote. You might've seen this formatting before in email clients.

A well placed quote guides a reader through a story, helping them to understand the most important points being made

All themes handles blockquotes slightly differently. Sometimes they'll look better kept shorter, while other times you can quote fairly hefty amounts of text and get away with it. Generally, the safest option is to use blockquotes sparingly.

Dividing things up

If you're writing a piece in parts and you just feel like you need to divide a couple of sections distinctly from each other, a horizontal rule might be just what you need. Dropping --- on a new line will create a sleek divider, anywhere you want it.


This should get you going with the vast majority of what you need to do in the editor, but if you're still curious about more advanced tips then check out the Advanced Markdown Guide - or if you'd rather learn about how Ghost taxononomies work, we've got a overview of how to use Ghost tags.

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<![CDATA[Organising your content with tags]]>Ghost has a single, powerful organisational taxonomy, called tags.

It doesn't matter whether you want to call them categories, tags, boxes, or anything else. You can think of Ghost tags a lot like Gmail labels. By tagging posts with one or more keyword, you can organise articles into buckets of

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http://157.230.217.118:3002/using-tags/5bc94a891b75350001ab37f8Sun, 19 Aug 2018 20:27:44 GMTGhost has a single, powerful organisational taxonomy, called tags.

It doesn't matter whether you want to call them categories, tags, boxes, or anything else. You can think of Ghost tags a lot like Gmail labels. By tagging posts with one or more keyword, you can organise articles into buckets of related content.

Basic tagging

When you write a post, you can assign tags to help differentiate between categories of content. For example, you might tag some posts with News and other posts with Cycling, which would create two distinct categories of content listed on /tag/news/ and /tag/cycling/, respectively.

If you tag a post with both News and Cycling - then it appears in both sections.

Tag archives are like dedicated home-pages for each category of content that you have. They have their own pages, their own RSS feeds, and can support their own cover images and meta data.

The primary tag

Inside the Ghost editor, you can drag and drop tags into a specific order. The first tag in the list is always given the most importance, and some themes will only display the primary tag (the first tag in the list) by default. So you can add the most important tag which you want to show up in your theme, but also add a bunch of related tags which are less important.

News, Cycling, Bart Stevens, Extreme Sports

In this example, News is the primary tag which will be displayed by the theme, but the post will also still receive all the other tags, and show up in their respective archives.

Private tags

Sometimes you may want to assign a post a specific tag, but you don't necessarily want that tag appearing in the theme or creating an archive page. In Ghost, hashtags are private and can be used for special styling.

For example, if you sometimes publish posts with video content - you might want your theme to adapt and get rid of the sidebar for these posts, to give more space for an embedded video to fill the screen. In this case, you could use private tags to tell your theme what to do.

News, Cycling, #video

Here, the theme would assign the post publicly displayed tags of News, and Cycling - but it would also keep a private record of the post being tagged with #video.

In your theme, you could then look for private tags conditionally and give them special formatting:

pre[class*="language-"].line-numbers {
	position: relative;
	padding-left: 3.8em;
	counter-reset: linenumber;
}

pre[class*="language-"].line-numbers > code {
	position: relative;
	white-space: inherit;
}

.line-numbers .line-numbers-rows {
	position: absolute;
	pointer-events: none;
	top: 0;
	font-size: 100%;
	left: -3.8em;
	width: 3em; /* works for line-numbers below 1000 lines */
	letter-spacing: -1px;
	border-right: 1px solid #999;

	-webkit-user-select: none;
	-moz-user-select: none;
	-ms-user-select: none;
	user-select: none;

}

.line-numbers-rows > span {
    pointer-events: none;
    display: block;
    counter-increment: linenumber;
}

.line-numbers-rows > span:before {
    content: counter(linenumber);
    color: #999;
    display: block;
    padding-right: 0.8em;
    text-align: right;
}

You can find documentation for theme development techniques like this and many more over on Ghost's extensive theme documentation.

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<![CDATA[Managing Ghost users]]>Ghost has a number of different user roles for your team

Authors

The base user level in Ghost is an author. Authors can write posts, edit their own posts, and publish their own posts. Authors are trusted users. If you don't trust users to be allowed to publish their own

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http://157.230.217.118:3002/managing-users/5bc94a891b75350001ab37f7Sun, 19 Aug 2018 20:27:43 GMT

Ghost has a number of different user roles for your team

Authors

The base user level in Ghost is an author. Authors can write posts, edit their own posts, and publish their own posts. Authors are trusted users. If you don't trust users to be allowed to publish their own posts, you shouldn't invite them to Ghost admin.

Editors

Editors are the 2nd user level in Ghost. Editors can do everything that an Author can do, but they can also edit and publish the posts of others - as well as their own. Editors can also invite new authors to the site.

Administrators

The top user level in Ghost is Administrator. Again, administrators can do everything that Authors and Editors can do, but they can also edit all site settings and data, not just content. Additionally, administrators have full access to invite, manage or remove any other user of the site.

The Owner

There is only ever one owner of a Ghost site. The owner is a special user which has all the same permissions as an Administrator, but with two exceptions: The Owner can never be deleted. And in some circumstances the owner will have access to additional special settings if applicable — for example, billing details, if using Ghost(Pro).


It's a good idea to ask all of your users to fill out their user profiles, including bio and social links. These will populate rich structured data for posts and generally create more opportunities for themes to fully populate their design.

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<![CDATA[Making your site private]]>Sometimes you might want to put your site behind closed doors

If you've got a publication that you don't want the world to see yet because it's not ready to launch, you can hide your Ghost site behind a simple shared pass-phrase.

You can toggle this preference on at the

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http://157.230.217.118:3002/private-sites/5bc94a891b75350001ab37f6Sun, 19 Aug 2018 20:27:42 GMT

Sometimes you might want to put your site behind closed doors

If you've got a publication that you don't want the world to see yet because it's not ready to launch, you can hide your Ghost site behind a simple shared pass-phrase.

You can toggle this preference on at the bottom of Ghost's General Settings

Making your site private

Ghost will give you a short, randomly generated pass-phrase which you can share with anyone who needs access to the site while you're working on it. While this setting is enabled, all search engine optimisation features will be switched off to help keep the site off the radar.

Do remember though, this is not secure authentication. You shouldn't rely on this feature for protecting important private data. It's just a simple, shared pass-phrase for very basic privacy.

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